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First early Eocene tapiroid from India and its implication for the paleobiogeographic origin of perissodactyls
Thierry Smith, Floréal Solé, Pieter Missiaen, Rajendra Rana, Kishor Kumar, Ashok Sahni and Kenneth D. Rose
Keywords: Ceratomorpha; Helaletidae; Paleogene; Tapiromorpha; Vastan

doi: 10.18563/pv.39.2.e5
 
  Abstract

    The presence of cambaytheres, the sister group of perissodactyls, in western India near or before the time of collision with Asia suggests that Perissodactyla may have originated on the Indian Plate during its final drift towards Asia. Herein we reinforce this hypothesis by reporting two teeth of the first early Eocene tapiromorph Perissodactyla from the Cambay Shale Formation of Vastan Lignite Mine (c. 54.5 Ma), Gujarat, western India, which we allocate to a new genus and species, Vastanolophus holbrooki. It presents plesiomorphic characters typical of the paraphyletic “Isectolophidae,” such as small size and weak lophodonty. However, the weaker hypoconulid and low paralophid, higher cusps, lower cristid obliqua, and the lingual opening of the talonid are found in Helaletidae, the most primitive tapiroid family. V. holbrooki, gen. et sp. nov., may be the oldest and the most primitive tapiroid, suggesting that at least tapiroid perissodactyls originated on India. 


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Published in Vol.39-2 (2015)

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Description des rongeurs Pliocènes de la faune du Mont-Hélène (Pyrénées-Orientales, France), nouveau jalon entre les faunes de Perpignan (Serrat-d'en-Vacquer) et de Sète.
Jean-Pierre Aguilar, Marc Calvet and Jacques Michaux
Keywords: Chronology; Climatology; France; Mont-Hélène; Pliocene; Rodents
 
  Abstract

    The Mont-Hélène's fauna [Pyrénées-Orientales, France], includes 15 species of rodents with a new one, Occitanomys montheleni n. sp. among the 9 species of the Murids which are listed. The uncommon Cricetid, Blancomys neglectus, is well represented in the fauna. Peculiarities of the population referred to Slephanomys cf. donnezaniare discussed. The locality a fissure filling may be the oldest one of Tabianian age known in Southern France. The diversity of the Murids gives evidence of a subtropical climate and of a diversified environment which may be linked to the spreading of the coastal plain following the filling up of the Roussillon Neogene Basin. 


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Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 3 (1986)

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Un nouveau chiroptère vespertilionide de l'Oligocène d'Europe
Bernard Sigé and Henri Menu
Keywords: bats; Europe; nov. sp.; Oligocene; Vespertilionid
 
  Abstract

    A fossil species of the extant genus Leuconoe, L. lavocati n. sp. from Le Garouillas Oligocene locality, Quercy phosphorites, SW-France, is established in nomenclatural standards. 


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Published in Vol. 22, Fasc. 1 (1992)

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New murids and gerbillids (Rodentia, Mammalia) from Pliocene Siwalik sediments of India.
Rajeev Patnaik
Keywords: Dental morphology; evolution; new species of murids and gerbillids; phylogenetic relationships; systematics
 
  Abstract

    Murids and gerbillids (Rodentia, Mammalia) recovered from four Upper Siwalik localities; Moginand (around 3.5-4.5 m.y.), Kanthro (around 2.5 m.y.), Ghaggar (around 2 m.y.) and Nadah (around 1.8-2 m.y.) are described herein. A comparison of Mus linnaeusi sp. nov. reveals its close relationship towards the house mouse Mus musculus. In contradiction to earlier proposals that Golunda migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Africa sometime during Late Pliocene, it is suggested here that Golunda (in the form of Golunda tatroticus sp. nov.) evolved from Parapelomys robertsí of Late Miocene deposits of Siwaliks. Golunda tatroticus sp. nov. exhibits a progressive relationship to the extant Indian Bush Rat Golunda ellioti through Golunda kelleri and Golunda sp. Tatera pinjoricus sp. nov. is considered here to be a link between the extinct Abudhabia kabulense and the extant Tatera indica.

      


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Published in Vol. 26, Fasc. 1-4 (1997)

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Le genre Plagiolophus (Palaeotheriidae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia): révision systématique, morphologie et histologie dentaires, anatomie crânienne, essai d'interprétation fonctionnelle
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: New taxa; Paleogene; perissodactyls; skull anatomy; tooth histology
 
  Abstract

    The genus Plagiolophus is documented, almost solely in Western Europe, from the middle Eocene up to the mid Oligocene (MP 12 to MP 25), i.e. more than for 15 MY. Seventeen species are now recorded whose two of them are new, P. ringeadei nov. sp. and P. mamertensis nov. sp. Some anatomical variations and the deflection of certain evolutionary trends justify the distinction of three subgenera, Paloplotherium, Fraasiolophus nov. and Plagiolophus s.s. The genus displays a wide range in size and weight (between 10 and 150 kg). The detailed description of the skull of several species is here given for the first time.
    Despite important evolutionary drifts during this long time span, the dentition shows a great structural homogeneity, which renders difficult the determination of fragmentary specimens or isolated teeth. It is characterized by a great heterodonty; premolars are little molarized and present a certain regression through time with paradoxically some progress in the molarization. The hypsodonty increases: the first Plagiolophus are hardly less brachyodont than Propalaeotherium, and the last ones are nearly as hypsodont as Merychippus from the early Miocene. The upper molars change from a wide crown pattern, with an open occlusal surface, lightly oblique transverse lophs and rounded internal cusps, to a narrower pattern, with a frontally constricted occlusal surface and internal lophs aligned parallel to the ectoloph. The M3/3 become always longer.

    The dental enamel displays horizontal Schreger-bands with imprecise limits occupying only the middle part of the enamel layer. The dentine is remarkable by its high rate of pericanalicular dentine. The crown cementum, lacking in earlier forms, increases to the point where it fills the occlusal valleys of the
    teeth.

    The masticatory musculature shows a increasing prominence of the temporal, with probably an important role devoted to the pterygoid muscles in lateral movements related to a two-phase type of chewing.

    The evolution of the dentition, of the masticatory musculature and of the repartition of masticatory forces indicate that the Plagiolophus have known different diets through their long evolutionary history; at first browsers they became mixed feeders and finally grazers. Their relatively long neck allowed these animals to reach different vegetal layers. The strength of the nuchal crests also suggests that they were able to have strong backwards movements of the head to pull up their food.

    This evolution of diet seems related to the slow degradation of environmental conditions attested during this period in western Europe, with the generalization of more open landscapes, increasing aridity and more marked seasons.

    Besides, a remodeling of the face is ontogenetically and along time observed, in relation with the evolution of the masticatory apparatus and especially with that of the mandibular lever arm. The postcanine diastemata become longer in the course of evolution; the free extremities of the nasals are always relatively long which contradicts the hypothesis according to which Paloplotherium may have had a trunk. At last the lineage Fraasiolophus can be distinguished by the presence of a deep malar fossa, probably related to a strong development of the maxillo-labialis superior muscle.

    The orbit is always large and tends to increase in size, which indicates a good development of the vision and its increasing role in the life relations. A peculiar type of epitympanic sinus could have been used as a resonance chamber insuring a certain amplification of sounds before their transmission to the eardrum. The endocranial cast reveals a relatively large brain with an advanced degree of gyrencephaly. Beside the role eventually played in food research and social relations, these neurophysiological abilities, also related to an advance in cursorial fitness, could have contributed to the survival of these animals facing the predation pressure of the first fissipede carnivores and the competition with new immigrant herbivores after the "Grande Coupure".
    On the basis of some shared apomorphies with the Pachynolophinae, which prevent from considering the latter as Equidae (molarization of the premolars, reduction of the premaxilla dorsal apophysis, peculiar epitympanic sinus, splitting of the jugular process), the hypothesis of an autochthonous origin of Plagiolophus issued from a form near Propalaeotherium, is once again proposed and discussed. Finally, intra-generic relationships are taken into consideration. 


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Published in Vol. 33, Fasc. 1-4 (2004)

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Origins of avian reproduction: answers and questionsfrom dinosaurs.
David J. Varricchio and Frankie D. Jackson
Keywords: Avian reproduction; clutch; dinosaurs; egg size; nests; oviducts; parental care
 
  Abstract

    The reproductive biology of living birds differs dramatically from that of other extant vertebrates. Distinctive features common to most birds include a single ovary and oviduct, production of one egg at daily or greater intervals, incubation by brooding and extensive parental care. The prevalence of male parental care is most exceptional among living amniotes. A variety of hypotheses exist to explain the origin of avian reproduction. Central to these models are proposed transitions from a condition of no care to maternal, paternal or biparental care systems. These evolutionary models incorporate a number of features potentially preservable or inferable from the fossil record (integument, skeletal adaptations for flight, egg and clutch size, nest form, hatchling developmental stage, the number and function of oviducts, and the mode of egg incubation). Increasing availability of data on dinosaur reproduction provides a means of assessing these hypotheses with fossil evidence. We compare dinosaur data to a selection of models that emphasize maternal, paternal or biparental care. Despite some congruence with dinosaur features, no single model on the evolution of avian reproduction conforms fully to the fossil record, and the ancestral parental care system of birds remains ambiguous. Further investigation into dinosaur parental care, nest structures, clutch geometry, egg-pairing, eggshell porosity, and embryo identification may eventually resolve these issues.  


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Published in Vol. 32, Fasc. 2-4 (2003)

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Contributions à l'étude des micromammifères du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). 2- Les rongeurs
Jean-Pierre Aguilar
Keywords: Hérault; Late Miocene; Micromammals; Montredon; Rodents
 
  Abstract

    The recent excavation of the Upper Miocene locality of Montredon (Hérault) provides a rich material of Mammals. The present study deals with rodents. The new quarry is 10 meters above the classical Depéret's Quarry. No differences have been noticed between the rodent populations coming grom these two sites. The description of two new species : Hispanomys mediterraneus and Muscardinus heintzi is given and the dormouse Eliomys is recorded there for the first time. The new zonation of the Miocene given by Aguilar (1982) and the previously established correlations between marine and continental chronological scales give Tortonien age (estimated between 9 and 10 M.Y. old) to the site of Montredon, which belongs to the Mammal zone D 2. 


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Published in Vol. 12, Fasc. 3 (1982)

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Les artiodactyles du gisement yprésien terminal de Premontre (Aisne, France)
Jean Sudre and Jorg Erfurt
Keywords: Artiodactyls; France; Mammals; new species; Ypresian
 
  Abstract

    The artiodactyls (Mammalia) from the latest Ypresian locality of Prémontré from the Paris Basin (niveau repère MP 10 in the lower Eocene of the Paris Basin) are described in this paper. Three species have been identified: 1) Diacodexis cf. varleti SUDRE et al., 1983; 2) a new species of Eurodexis ERFURT & SUDRE (E. russelli nov. sp.) defined after the revision of the species Messelobunodon? ceciliensis from the Lutetian beds of Geiseltal (Germany); and 3) Eurodexeinae indet., a probable ancestor of another form from the Geiseltal which was previously recorded as Homacodon? sp. (Erfurt 1993) and now named Parahexacodus germanicus. The two later forms are referred to the new subfamily Eurodexeinae (Erfurt & Sudre 1996). The analysis of these forms as weIl as comparative studies have led us to reconsider our previous conclusions regarding the content of the species Protodichobune oweni LEMOINE 1878 and some aspects of Ypresian diacodexid evolution. One can postulate that the divergence of E. russelli nov. sp. occurred during the first radiation of these primitive artiodactyls. Some other stem form with bunodont teeth such as Protodichobune and Aumelasia have also differentiated from Diacodexis. Like Eurodexis, these two genera persist during the middle Eocene. The absence of Protodichobune and Aumelasia at Prémontré is probably due to particular ecological conditions. 


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Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Les Périssodactyles (Mammalia) du gisement Bartonien supérieur de Robiac (Éocène moyen du Gard, Sud de la France)
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: Chasmotherium; new species; Palaeotheriidae; paleoenvironments

doi: 10.18563/pv.39.1.e3
 
  Abstract

    We present here a new updated counting of the perissodactyls of Robiac, the type locality of the MP 16 level of the biochronological scale of paleogene mammals and that of the Robiacian stage of Eocene Land Mammals Ages in Western Europe.
    The outcrop of Robiac consists actually of two 500m apart loci, Robiac-Nord and Robiac-Sud, considered of the same age according to the current discriminating power, and is dated from -38,7 MA after the last faunal, magnetostratigraphic and climatic calibrations.
    It has yielded a very abundant and rich of 21 taxa perissodactyl fauna, topped by the giant Lophiodon lautricense, last representative of the family Lophiodontidae, of which it is the last proved deposit. The Palaeotheriidae are much diversified with 5 genera and 9 species of "Pachynolophinae", 3 genera and 10 species of Palaeotheriinae. Nine taxa have been defined from Robiac: Chasmotherium depereti n. sp., Palaeotherium castrense robiacense Franzen, 1968, the genus Leptolophus Remy, 1965 with the species L. stehlini Remy, 1965 and L. magnus Remy, 1998, Anchilophus (Paranchilophus) jeanteti Remy, 2012, Metanchilophus chaubeti Remy, 2012, Lophiotherium robiacense Depéret, 1917 and Pachynolophus gaytei n. sp.
    The faunal Robiac cenogram with the associated flora testify to a hot, wet and forestal environment, likely corresponding to a short warming climatic phase; the broken up fossil bones should have been carried away and then gathered in swamp areas along the banks of a meandering river.
    The swarm of mammals of Robiac, the richest of contemporaneous deposits, has been followed by a drastic drop in perissodactyl diversity at the MP 17A level; a crisis which could have originated in a renewal of the global Eocene cooling. Fons 4, the type-locality of this level, is largely scarcer in perissodactyls and its cenogram testifies to a less diversified fauna, with on the whole smaller species, that likely means a cooler and drier climatic environment; a new perissodactyl diversification occurred but later.
      


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Published in Vol.39-1 (2015)

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Une nouvelle espèce de Steneosaurus (Thalattosuchia, Teleosauridae) dans le Callovien du Poitou (France) et la systématique des Steneosaurus longirostres du Jurassique moyen d'Europe Occidentale.
Patrick Vignaud
Keywords: middle Jurassic; nov. sp.; phylogenetic relationships; skulls; Steneosaurus pictaviensis; systematics; thalattosuchian crocodile
 
  Abstract

    The study of all the available skulls allows us to review the systematic relationships of the longirostrine Steneosaurus from the Middle Jurassic of western Europe. Up to now, Aalenian and Bajocian deposits have not yielded any significant Steneosaurus remain. In the Bathonian, the only valid longirostrine species, S. megistorhynchus, is known in the Britain-Normandy Basin, the Poitou and the Lorraine. In the Callovian, most of the longirostrine Steneosaurus remains can be attributed to the species S. leedsi. Nevertheless, some remains from the Middle Callovian of Poitou (France) show important differences with S. leedsi. A new Steneosaurus species, only known in Poitou, is created and named S. pictaviensis. The specific characters are carried by the skull (preorbital pit well marked, orbit and ptetygoid fossae shapes), by the mandible (symphysis shape) and by the teeth (ornamentation). S. megistorhynchus is probably situated near the stem of the Callovian species but remains from the Bathonian and Lower Callovian are very scarce and it is very difficult to precise the phylogenetic relationships between the longirostrine species of the Middle Jurassic.
      


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Published in Vol. 27, Fasc. 1-2 (1998)

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Latest Early-early Middle Eocene deposits of Algeria (Glib Zegdou, HGL50), yield the richest and most diverse fauna of amphibians and squamate reptiles from the Palaeogene of Africa
Jean-Claude Rage, Mohamed Adaci, Mustapha Bensalah, Mahammed Mahboubi, Laurent Marivaux, Fateh Mebrouk and Rodolphe Tabuce
Keywords: Africa; Algeria; amphibians; Eocene; squamates

doi: 10.18563/pv.44.1.e1
 
  Abstract

    HGL50 is a latest Early-early Middle Eocene vertebrate-bearing locality located in Western Algeria. It has produced the richest and most diverse fauna of amphibians and squamate reptiles reported from the Palaeogene of Africa. Moreover, it is one of the rare faunas including amphibians and squamates known from the period of isolation of Africa. The assemblage comprises 17 to 20 taxa (one gymnophionan, one probable caudate, three to six anurans, seven ‘lizards’, and five snakes). Two new taxa were recovered: the anuran Rocekophryne ornata gen. et sp. nov. and the snake Afrotortrix draaensis gen. et sp. nov. The locality has also yielded the first confirmed anilioid snake, the first Palaeogene gymnophionan, and probably the first caudate from the Palaeogene (and possibly from the Tertiary) of Africa. The presence of a caudate at that time in Africa would be of particular interest; unfortunately, the available material does not permit a definitive identification. The fauna comprises Gondwanan and more specifically West Gondwanan vicariants, probably autochthonous groups and a Eurasian immigrant (assuming that the identification of the caudate is accurate). The fauna from HGL50 is clearly distinguished from the few other Eocene assemblages of Africa. However, if this results largely from differences in geological ages, geographic positions of the localities and mainly differences in environments took a part in the composition of the faunas. 


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Published in 44-1 (2021)

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Contributions à l'étude du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. 5 - Les périssodactyles Equidae
Véra Eisenmann
Keywords: Equidae; Hipparion; Late Vallesian; Mammalia; Montredon; Perissodactyla
 
  Abstract

    Revision of the hipparion material from Montredon, including newly excavated and other unpublished specimens brings evidence of specific heterogeneity.
    A fragmentary very small MC III seems very close to H. macedonicum from the upper Vallesian of Ravin de la Pluie, Greece. In that same site was also found a large hipparion.
    Most of the Montredon material is referred to H. depereti. This species associates characters usually found in Vallesian hipparions (highly plicated upper cheek teeth, deep vestíbular grooves on the lower cheek teeth, robust metapodials) with characters more frequent in Turolian forms (middle size, lack of confluence in the upper premolar fossettes, lack of ectostylids on the adult lower cheek teeth, well developped keel on the MC III, facette for the 2nd cuneiform present on all MT III). H. depereti shares some of these characters with the Spanish and Portuguese hipparions transítional between the Vallesian and the Turolian (Masia del Barbo, Azambujeira) but is not identícal to any of them. The upper Vallesian hipparion material from Diavata, Greece, probably belongs to H. depereti but not the large hipparion rests from Ravin de la Pluie.
    Thus, Montredon and Ravin de la Pluie may well share the same small species, H. macedonicum, but they differ in the associated one: middle-sized H. depereti at Montredon, large-sized H. primigenium at Ravin de la Pluie. Both sites, however, give evidence of small hipparions during the Vallesian, coexisting with other larger species.
    The present paper also proposes an adaptation of the Kiesewalter's indices that calculates the height at the withers using the metapodial length, and discusses indices proposed by Gromova and by Sen et al. to express the relative development of the metapodial keel. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)

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Lower Paleogene crocodilians from Silveirinha, Portugal.
Miguel T. Antunes
Keywords: ?Upper Paleocene / Lowermost Eocene; Crocodilians; Ecology; Portugal
 
  Abstract

    The presence at Silveirinha of one of the earliest, ? Late Paleocene or Lowermost Eocene, european representatives of the genus Diplocynodon is based mostly on isolated bones and teeth (often from juveniles). This small-sized form is the only crocodilian so far recognized in this site. The longevity of Diplocynodon in Portugal becomes much extended; the genus survived there until the Middle Miocene at least. A discussion on the possible affinities with other eocene Díplocynodon and especially those from Cubillos-Valdegallina (Zamora, Spain) is presented. On the other hand, differences have been detected in comparison with: Díplocynodon tormis, from the middle Eocene of the Douro basin in Spain, which may belong to another phyletic line; and the aff. Diplocynodon from Dormaal (Belgium) and Le Quesnoy (France), nearly contemporaneous of Silveirinha. The Silveirinha Diplocynodon and many other data strongly suggest moist, subtropical, quite limited in space environments related to an alluvial plain crossed by small, meandering channels. 


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Published in Vol. 32, Fasc. 1 (2003)

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Preliminary evolution of paleosols and implications for interpreting vertebrate fossil assemblages, Kuldana formation, Northern Pakistan
Andres Aslan and J. G. M. Thewissen
Keywords: Eocene; Kuldana Formation; Pakistan; Paleosols; Pedogenic Carbonate; taphonomy; Time Averaging; Vertebrate Fossils
 
  Abstract

    Paleosols and the taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the Eocene Kuldana Formation of northern Pakistan provide important information on the preservation and time-averaging of fossil assemblages. Morphologic, mineralogic, and chemical data as well as comparisons with Quaternary soils suggest that Kuldana paleosols formed under generally dry and oxidizing conditions over time intervals of less than 100 000 years and perhaps as short as 1000 years. The distribution of carbonate in Kuldana paleosols further indicates that the upper half of the profiles were acidic whereas the lower halves were alkaline. Vertebrate fossils are rare in Kuldana paleosols and occur primarily in well-cemented sandstones and conglomerates with abundant micritic and iron-stained nodules that were reworked from floodplain soils. The scarcity of vertebrate remains in Kuldana paleosols probably reflects a combination of acidic, dry, and oxidizing conditions in the upper half of the profiles and rapid floodplain sedimentation. Comparisons between the taphonomic characteristics of Kuldana channel fossil assemblages and bone accumulations in modem rivers provide a basis for estimating the length of time represented by Kuldana fossils from several important localities. Vertebrate fossil assemblages from Barbora Banda are characterized by a low-diversity paleofauna, partially articulated skeletons, and bones that are sorted by size and shape. Comparison with bone accumulations in modern rivers suggests that the fossils from Barbora Banda accumulated in 1 to 10 years. Vertebrate fossils from the Lower Kuldana in the Kala Chitta Hills region, typified by locality H-GSP 62, are characterized by a high-diversity paleofauna and generally random and unsorted fossil bone distributions, which suggest that the fossils from these localities represent longer time intervals than the Barbora Banda fossils. Based on the time estimates for Kuldana paleosol development, fossil assemblages in Kuldana channel deposits in the Kala Chitta Hills region probably represent time intervals of about 1000 years. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Insectivores pliocènes du Sud de la France (Languedoc-Roussillon) et du Nord-Est de l'Espagne.
Jean-Yves Crochet
Keywords: Biostratigraphy; Insectivora; Languedoc; Pliocene; Spain; systematics
 
  Abstract

    The first lists of Insectivores (Erinaceidae, Talpidae and Soricidae) from the Pliocene beds of Southern France and North-East Spain are given in this paper. The material from twelve localities is studied. These localities are geographically situated in Languedoc (Celleneuve, Vendargues, Nîmes, Sète, Balaruc 2 and Seynes), in Roussillon (Terrats, Serrats-d'en-Vacquer, Château d'eau and Mont-Hélène) and in North-East Spain (Layna, Medas Islands and Puebla de Valverde). These faunas correspond to the Early, Middle and Late Pliocene. 1 to 8 taxa are identified in these localities and 14 specific taxa are presently listed for this period in this area. Two new specific taxa are described as Galerix depereti nov. sp. from all the Early Pliocene localities in the North-Pyrenean area and as Desmanella gardiolensis nov. sp. from Balaruc 2. For this small mammals, two faunal assemblages are recognized. The first one is dated from the Early Pliocene (F 1, 2 and 3 zones in Aguilar et Michaux) and is characterized by Galerix depereti and rare and little diversified Soricids. The second one is Late Pliocene in age (zones G 2 and G 3). The fossils of the genus Talpa are relatively abundant and the Soricids are diversified and very abundant. The Middle Pliocene (zone G 1) is a transitional period. ln these faunas, most of the insectivore genera are known from the European Late Miocene beds (8 on 10). This fact demonstrates a relative continuity between the invectivore faunas from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene. In conclusion, somme paleoecological considerations are suggested.
      


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Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 3 (1986)

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Nouvelles espèces de Dendromus (Rongeurs,Muriodea) à Langebaanweg (Pliocène,Afrique du Sud) conséquences stratigraphiques et Paléoecologiques
Christiane Denys
Keywords: Dendromurinae; Paleoecology; Pliocene; Rodents; South Africa; Stratigraphy
 
  Abstract

    New Dendromus species (Rodentia, Muroídea) from Langebaanweg (Pliocene, South Africa). Stratigraphical and paleoecological consequences.

    Two new species of Dendromus are described from the Langebaanweg site which precises the evolutionary trend among this genus in South Africa and gives further paleoenvironmental indications. Two evolutionary stages are described: D. darti nov. sp. shows low-crowned molars with bunodont cusps and its more closest relative would be D. melanozis from the Cape region. On the contrary, D. averyi nov. sp. is more lophodont and is better related with the modem D. melanotis. Both species are at a less evolved stage than the Dendromus sp. from Laetolil Beds at Laetoli. The Langebaanweg deposits cannot still be dated by biostratigraphy but they clearly cannot be older than the basis of Pliocene times. The association of Dendromus and Mystromys in the same levels indicates a grassland environment with woodland patches as well as probable swamps. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 23, Fasc. 1-4 (1994)

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First Neogene Otonycteris (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Ukraine: its biostratigraphic and paleogeographic significance.
Valentina V. Rosina
Keywords: bats; East Europe; Gritsev; Late Miocene; Mammalia

doi: 10.18563/pv.39.1.e2
 
  Abstract

    A new species, Otonycteris rummeli nov. sp., is described from the Late Miocene site Gritsev (MN 9) in the Ukraine. Otonycteris rummeli nov. sp. differs from those of most vespertilionids, except recent Otonycteris, Antrozous and Early Miocene Karstala silva, in having a well-developed entocingulid at the foot of the trigonid valley in the lower molars. The morphological resemblance of Otonycteris, Antrozous and Karstala is apparently a case of convergence in the evolution of the Old and New Worlds bat faunas. From at least the Middle Miocene the range of Otonycteris distribution spread to the whole of Central Europe and such a situation continued during the whole Late Miocene. This indicates a more arid climate in Europe during the Upper Miocene compared to the Quaternary. The reduction of the distribution range of Otonycteris and its extinction in most of the territory of Europe could have been caused by the global climatic cooling and increasing glacial cycle amplitude during the onset of the Quaternary. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol.39-1 (2015)

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Mammifères de l'Ilerdien Moyen (Eocène inférieur) des Corbières et du Minervois (Bas-Languedoc, France). Systématique, Biostratigraphie, Corrélations.
Bernard Marandat
Keywords: Biostratigraphy; Corbières; correlations; Early Eocene; Ilerdian; Mammalia; Minervois; Paleobiogeography; Southern France
 
  Abstract

    Mammal-bearing localities have been discovered in the marine and lacustrine series of the middle Ilerdian (Lowermost Eocene) from Southem France (Minervois and Corbières). In the localities of Fordones, Monze, Fournès, and La Gasque, thirty mammal species have been identified. Among others, they include ischyromyid rodents (Microparamys and Pseudoparamys), paromomyid and adapid primates (Arcius and Donrussellia), new insectivores, condylarths, and a dyspternine pantolestid. These faunas provide new informations on the early Eocene Mesogean faunas of Rians and Palette. The assemblages of primates and rodents from Fordones support good  correlations with Palette which was recently placed near the standard-level of Dormaal (MP 7). In fact, Palette and Fordones could be even older than Dormaal. Consequently, there seems to be a relatively important temporal gap between the late Paleocene of Cernay and the Sparnacian of Dormaal. This gap could be partly filled with the Mesogean faunas of Palette, Fordones, and Silveirinha. On the basis of these new mammal faunas the marine middle Ilerdian is proved to be older than the Cuisian stage of the Paris Basin. With regards to the position of the Fordones fauna at the top of the NP 10 calcareous nannoplankton biozone, the westem European paleomammalogists Paleocene/Eocene boundary could be situated between the NP 9 and NP 10 biozones. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 20, Fasc. 2-3 (1991)

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Old world hemiones and new world slender species (Mammalia, Equidae)
Véra Eisenmann, John Howe and Mario Pichardo
Keywords: Amerhippus; biometry; Equus; Holocene; New World; Old World; Osteology; Pleistocene; Pliocene

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.159-233
 
  Abstract

    Morphological and biometrical description of skulls, teeth, and limb bones of extant and fossil Old World herniones (including E. hydruntinus) and of New World 'stilt-Iegged' and other slender species from Blancan to Holocene. An Appendix presents ways in which the approximate size of some missing bones or dimensions may be deduced from available ones.

    The discussed and/or illustrated fossils were found in Bolivia (Tarija), Canada (Yukon), China (Choukoutien, Gulongshan, Jiling, Loufangzi), Ecuador (Oil Fields), Ethiopia (Melka Kunturé), France (Lunel-Viel), Germany (Süssenborn), Greece (Agios Georgios, Petralona), Hungary (Dorog), Italy (Romanelli), Mexico (Cedazo, San Josecito), Mongolia (Sjara-osso-gol), Spain (Venta Micena), ex-Soviet Union (Akhalkalaki, Binagady, Chokurcha, Chukochya, Kabazi, Kolyma, Krestovka, Kurtak, Staroselie, Tologoj), USA (Alaska, Arkalon, Cedar Meadow, Channing, Conkling, Dry Mountains, Hay Springs, Leisey Shell Pit A, Lissie Formation, Natural Trap, Pool Branch, Powers Ranch, Rock Creek, San Diego, Santo Domingo, Seymour Formation, Shelter, Slaton, Trinity River). Numerous raw or statistically elaborated data are given in Tables.

    There is no evidence for the existence of Old World hemiones in the New World nor of 'stilt-Iegged' equids in the Old World. The first 'stilt-Iegged' equid was found at Santo Domingo, New Mexico, and is believed to be Late Blancan. It was probably at the origin of E. calobatus (Arkalon, Rock Creek) and of the smaller E. semiplicatus (Channing, Rock Creek). Slender, but not 'stilt-Iegged', equids found at Natural Trap, Wyoming, ca. 12 ky ago belong to Amerhippus. AlI these species share with Oid World Sussemiones (and some hemiones) peculiar patterns on the lower cheek teeth.

    The slender Equus sp. B of Leisey Pit A, Florida, ca. 1.2 Ma, as weIl as Amerhippus francisci and E. tau (probably a senior synonym of E. quinni) share conventional lower cheek teeth patterns. The skulls of A. francisci and E. tau, however, are quite different.

    Paleontological data suggest a common origin of Amerhippus, Sussemiones, and 'stilt-Iegged' equids during the late Blancan. Old World hemiones seem to have differentiated later. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4 (2008)

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The evolution of the molar pattern of the Erethizontidae (Rodentia,Hystricognathi) and the validity of Parasteiromys Ameghino, 1904.
Adriana M. Candela
Keywords: Argentina; Erethizontidae; Hystricognathi; Miocene; Molar evolution; Porcupines; Rodentia; systematics
 
  Abstract

    The genus Parasteiromys AMEGHINO, 1904 is revalidated, and P. friantae sp. nov. (Hystricognathi, Erethizontidae) from Colhuehuapian (early Miocene) sediments of the southern cliff of Colhue-Huapi Lake (Province of Chubut, Argentina), is described. The molar morphology of these taxa and of living porcupines adds new elements to understand the dental evolution of the Erethizontidae, and to propose the hypothetical ancestral molar pattern for this family. This pattern does not correspond to any of the morphologies traditionally proposed as ancestral for South American hystricognathous rodents. The proposed pattern is characterized by a metaloph disconnected from the posteroloph and oriented towards the hypocone, and the third loph incompletely developed with the lingual portion homologous to the mesolophule of Baluchimyinae (Chapattimyidae) from the Miocene of Pakistan. The inferred steps of the molar evolution of erethizontids towards the pentalophodont condition, considered derived for the family, are illustrated. This study strengthens the hypothesis placing erethizontids in a basal position among rodents of the suborder Hystricognathi.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 28, Fasc. 1 (1999)

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