Current issue


October 2021
Special Volume 1-2021
<< prev. next >>

Print ISSN: 0031-0247
Online ISSN: 2274-0333
Frequency: biannual

Article Management

You must log in to submit or manage articles.

You do not have an account yet ? Sign up.


Palaeovertebrata in press article


Additions to the elasmobranch assemblage from the Bandah Formation (middle Eocene, Bartonian), Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India, and the palaeobiogeographic implications of the fauna
Rajendra S. Rana, Raman Patel, David J. Cicimurri and Jun A. Ebersole
Keywords: Chondrichthyes; Elasmobranchii; Indian Ocean; Palaeogene; South Asia

doi: 10.18563/pv.44.2.e1
 

Cite this article: Rana R. S., Patel R., Cicimurri D. J., Ebersole J. A., 2021. Additions to the elasmobranch assemblage from the Bandah Formation (middle Eocene, Bartonian), Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India, and the palaeobiogeographic implications of the fauna. Palaeovertebrata 44 (2)-e1. doi: 10.18563/pv.44.2.e1

Export citation

Abstract

Isolated elasmobranch teeth (sharks and rays) from the middle Eocene (Bartonian) Bandah Formation in the Jaisalmer District of Rajasthan, India are described. The remains improve our knowledge of the environment represented by this lithostratigraphic unit and the ecology preserved therein. Seventeen unequivocal taxa were identified, including Nebrius sp., Striatolamia aff. S. macrota, Brachycarcharias atlasi, B. lerichei, cf. Jaekelotodus sp., Carcharhinus mancinae, Rhizoprionodon sp., Physogaleus sp., Galeocerdo clarkensis, G. eaglesomei, Odontorhytis aff. O. pappenheimi, “Rhinobatos” sp., “Dasyatis” sp., Coupatezia sp., “Aetomylaeus” sp., “Rhinoptera” sp., and Ouledia aff. O. lacuna. Of these, “Aetomylaeus” sp., B. atlasi, C. mancinae, G. clarkensis, G. eaglesomei, cf. Jaekelotodus sp., Nebrius sp., Odontorhytis aff. O. pappenheimi, Ouledia aff. O. lacuna, and “Rhinoptera” sp. are reported from the middle Eocene of India for the first time. The Bandah Formation elasmobranch palaeofauna has close affinities to the Palaeocene-Eocene Tethyan/Paratethyan faunas of Africa, Madagascar, Asia, and Europe, and some taxa indicate a western hemisphere influence from North America. The Bandah Formation palaeofauna indicates that deposition occurred in a moderately shallow marine environment. The Bartonian age is primarily based on foraminifera but is corroborated by the presence of elasmobranch taxa that also occur in contemporaneous deposits elsewhere. The marine regression started during the early Palaeogene, and our study indicates that the sea completely withdrew from the Jaisalmer Basin after the deposition of the Bandah Formation. This event may have been synchronous with the middle Eocene uplift of the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau. 



in press

Bibliography

Adnet, S., 2006. Nouvelles faunes de Sélaciens (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii) de l’Eocène moyen des Landes (Sud-Ouest, France). Implication dans la connaisance des communautés de sélaciens d’eaux profondes. Palaeo Ichthyologica 10, 1-128.
Adnet, S., Cappetta, H., Beard, K. C., Marivaux, L., Marandat, B., Chaimanee, Y., Jaeger, J.-J., Tun, S. T., Soe, A. N., 2008. First myliobatiform teeth (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii) from the Pondaung Formation (late middle Eocene) of Central Myanmar. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie un Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 247, 335-340. https://doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2008/0247-0335
Adnet, S., Antoine, P.-O., Baqri, S .R. H., Crochet, J.-Y., Marivaux. L., Welcomme, J.-L.,  Metais, G., 2007. New tropical carcharhinids (Chondrichthyes, Carcharhiniformes) from the late Eocene-early Oligocene of Balochistan, Pakistan: Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 30, 303-323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2006.10.002
Adnet, S., Cappetta, H., Elnahas, S., Strougo, S., 2011. A new Priabonian chondrichthyan assemblage from the Western desert, Egypt: Correlation with the Fayum Oasis. Journal of African Earth Sciences 61, 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2011.04.005
Adnet, S., Marivaux, L., Cappetta, H., Charruault, A. L.,  Essid,  E. M., Jiquel, S.,  Ammar, H. K.,  Marandat, B., Marzougui, W., Merzeraud, G., Temani, R., Liaud, M. V., Tabuce, R., 2020. Diversity and renewal of tropical elasmobranchs around the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in North Africa: New data from the lagoonal deposits of Djebel el Kébar, Central Tunisia. Palaeontologia Electronica 23, a38.  https://doi.org/10.26879/1085
Agassiz, L. 1838. Recherches sur les poissons fossiles, 11th livraison (November 1838). Petitpierre et Prince (text) and H. Nicolet (plates), Neuchâtel.
Agassiz, L. 1843. Recherches sur les Poissons fossiles. Imprimerie de Petitpierre, Neuchâtel. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.4275
Applegate S. P., 1974. A revision of the higher taxa of Orectoloboids. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 14(2), 743-751.
Arambourg, C., 1952. Les vertébrés fossiles des gisements de phosphates (Maroc-Algérie-Tunisie). Notes et Mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc 92, 1-372.
Archiac, E. J. A. D. d’., 1850. Description des fossiles du groupe nummulititique recueillis par M. S.P. Pratt et M. J. Delbos aux environs de Bayonne et de Dax. Mémoire de la Société Géologique de France 2(3), 397-456.
Archiac, E. J. A. D., d’, Haime, J., 1853. Description des animaux fossiles du groupe nummulitique de l’Inde: précédée d’un résumé géologique et d’une monographie des nummulites. Gide et Baudry, Paris.
Bajpai, S., Thewissen, J. G. M., 2000. A new, diminutive whale from Kachchh (Gujarat, India) and its implications for locomotor evolution of cetaceans. Current Science 79, 1478-1482.
Bauzà, R. J., Gomez Pallerola, J. E., 1988. Contribución al conocimiento de la ictiología fósil de España. Boletin de la Sociedad de Historia Natural de Baleares 32, 115-138.
Biswas, S. K., 1971. Note on the Geology of Kutch. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological, Mining, and Metallurgical Society of India 43, 223-235.
Blainville, H. M. D., de, 1816. Prodrome d’une nouvelle distribution sytématique du règne animal. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomatique de Paris 8, 105-124.
Böhm, J., 1926. Über tertiäre versteinerungen von den Bogenfelsen diamantfeldern. In: Kaiser, E. (Ed.), Die Diamantwüste Südwestafrikas. Berlin, pp. 55-87.
Bolli, H. M., 1957. The genera Globigerina and Globorotalia in the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Lizard Springs Formation of Trinidad, B.W.I . Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum 215, 61-82.
Bolli, H. M., Loeblich, A. R., Tappan, H., 1957. Planktonic foraminiferal families Hantkeninidae, Orbulinidae, Globorotaliidae and Globotruncanidae. In: Loeblich, A. R., Jr., Tappan, H., Beckmann, J. P., Bolli, H. M., Montanaro Gallitelli, E., Troelsen, J. C. (Eds.), Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin 215, 3-50.
Bonaparte, C. L., 1835. Prodromus systematis ichthyologiae. Nuovi Annali delle Scienze Naturali Bologna Series 1 2 (40), 181-196, 272-277.
Bonaparte, C. L., 1838. Selachorum tabula analytica. Nuovi Annali della Science Naturali Bologna 1(2), 195-214.
Bray, D. J.,  Gomon, M. F. (Eds.), 2020.  Fishes of Australia. Museums Victoria and OzFishNet, accessed [12/2020], http://fishesofaustralia.net.au
Brönnimann, P.,  Bermudez, P. J., 1953. Truncorotaloides, a new foraminiferal genus from the Eocene of Trinidad, B.W.I. Journal of Paleontology 27, 817-820.
Cappetta, H., 1980a. Modification du statut générique de quelques espèces de sélaciens crétacés et tertiaires. Palaeovertebrata 10(1), 29-42.
Cappetta, H., 1980b. Les sélaciens du Crétacé supérieur du Liban. II, Batoïdes. Palaeontolographica Abteilung A 168 (5-6), 149-229.
Cappetta, H., 1981. Additions à la faune de sélaciens fossiles du Maroc. 1: Sur la présence des genres Heptranchias, Alopias et Odontorhytis dans l’Yprésien des Ouled Abdoun. Géobios 14, 563-575. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(81)80137-4
Cappetta, H., 1982. Révision de Cestracion duponti Winkler, 1874 (Selachii, Batomorphii) du Bruxellien de Woluwe-Saint-Lambert (Eocène moyen de Belgique). Mededelingen Van De Werkgroep Voor Tertiaire En Kwartaire Geologie 19(4), 113-125.
Cappetta, H., 1986. Myliobatidae nouveaux (Neoselachii, Batomorphii) de l’Yprésien des Ouled Abdoun, Maroc. Geologica et Palaeontologica 20, 185-207.
Cappetta, H., 1987. Chondrichthyes II. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii. Handbook of Palaeoichthyology. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.
Cappetta, H., 2012. Chondrichthyes (Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii, Teeth). Handbook of Palaeoichthyology. Verlag Friedrich Pfeil, München.
Cappetta, H., Case, G. R., 1975. Sélaciens nouveaux du Crétacé du Texas. Géobios 8(4), 303-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(75)80028-3
Cappetta, H., Case, G. R., 2016. A selachian fauna from the middle Eocene (Lutetian, Lisbon Formation) of Andalusia, Covington County, Alabama, U.S.A. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 307, 43-103.
Cappetta, H., Corral, J.C., 1999. Upper Maastrichtian selachians from the Condado de Treviño (Basque-Cantabrian region, Iberian Peninsula). Estudios del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava 14, 339-372.
Cappetta, H.,  Nolf, D., 1981. Les sélaciens de l’Auversien de Ronquerolles (Eocène Supérieur du bassin de Paris). Mededelingen van de Werkgroep voor Tertiaire en Kwartaire Geologie 81, 87-107.
Cappetta, H., Nolf, D., 2005. Révision de quelques Odontaspididae (Neoselachii, Lamniformes) du Paléocène et de l’Eocène du Bassin de la Mer du Nord. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Science de la Terre 75, 237-266.
Carrillo-Briceño, J. D., Aguilera, O. A., De Gracia, C., Aguirre-Fernández, G., Kindlmann, R., Sánchez-Villagra, M. R., 2016. An early Neogene elasmobranch fauna from the southern Caribbean (western Venezuela). Palaeontologia Electronica 10948074. https://doi.org/10.26879/664
Carrillo-Briceño, J. D., Maxwell, E., Aguilera, O. A., Sánchez, R., Sánchez-Villagra, M. R., 2015. Sawfishes and other elasmobranch assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, northwestern Venezuela). PLoS One 10(10), e0139230. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139230
Case, G. R., 1994. Fossil fish remains from the late Paleocene Tuscahoma and early Eocene Bashi formations of Meridian, Lauderdale County, Mississippi. Part I - Selachians. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 230 (4-6): 97-138.
Case, G. R., Borodin, P. D., 2000. A middle Eocene Selachian Fauna from the Castle Hayne Limestone Formation of Duplin County, North Carolina. Münchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (A) 39, 17-32.
Case, G. R., Cappetta, H., 1990. The Eocene selachian fauna from the Fayum Depression in Egypt. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 212, 1-30.
Case, G. R., West, R. M., 1991. Geology and palaeontology of the Eocene Drazinda Shale Member of the Khirthar Formation, central western Pakistan, Part II: late Eocene fishes. Tertiary Research 12, 105-120.
Casier, E., 1946. La faune ichthyologique de l’Yprésien de la Belgique. Mémoires du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 104, 1-267.
Cicimurri, D. J., 2010. On the dentition of Meridiania convexa Case (Myliobatoidea), an extinct early Eocene ray from the United States. Cainozoic Research 7(1-2), 99-107.
Cicimurri, D. J., Ebersole, J. A., Martin, G., 2020. Two new species of Mennerotodus Zhelesko, 1994 (Chondrichthyes: Lamniformes: Odontaspididae) from the Paleogene of the southeastern United States. Fossil Record 23, 117-140. https://doi.org/10.5194/fr-23-117-2020
Cicimurri, D. J., Knight, J. L., 2019. Late Eocene (Priabonian) elasmobranchs from the Dry Branch Formation (Barnwell Group) of Aiken County, South Carolina, USA. PaleoBios 36, 1-31.
Cizancourt, H., de, 1938. Nummulites et Assilines du flysch de Gardez et du Khost, Afghanistan oriental. In: Cizancourt, A. de, Cox, L. R. (Eds.), Contribution à l’étude des faunes tertiaires de l’Afghanistan. Mémoire de la Société Géologique de France (new series) 39, 5-28.
Cizancourt, H., de, 1946. Dénominations nouvelles pour Assilina umbilicata Mme de. Cizancourt et Assilina subumbilicata Mme de Cizancourt 1938. - C. R. Société Géologique de France 16, 335.
Cole, W. S., 1928. A foraminiferal fauna from the Chapapote formation in Mexico. Bulletins of American Paleontology 14(53), 1-33.
Compagno, L. J. V., 1973. Interrelationships of living elasmobranchs. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 53 (Supplement 1), 15-61.
Compagno, L. J. V., 2005. Global checklist of living chondrichthyan fishes. In: Fowler, S. L., Cavanagh, R. D., Camhi, M., Burgess, G. H., Cailliet, G. M., Fordham, S. V., Simpfendorfer, C. A., Musick, J. A. (Eds.), Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras, the Status of Chondrichthyan Fishes. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland, pp. 401-423.
Cope, E. D., 1871. Observations on the systematic relations of the fishes. The American Naturalist 5, 579-593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/270831
Cushman, J. A., 1925a. New foraminifera from the upper Eocene of Mexico. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research 1, 4-9.
Cushman, J. A., 1925b. Some new Foraminifera from the Velasco Shale of Mexico. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research 1, 18-23.
Cuvier, G., 1829. Le règne animal, distribué d’après son organisation, pour servir de base à l’histoire naturelle des animaux et d’introduction à l’anatomie comparée, Edition 2. Chez Déterville, Paris. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.49223
Dames, W., 1883. Über eine tertiäre Wirbelthierfauna von der westlichen Insel der Birket-EI-Qrûn im Fajum (Aegypten). Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 6, 129-153.
Davies, L. M., Pinfold, E. S., 1937. The Eocene Beds of the Punjab Salt Range. Palaeontologica Indica (new series) 24, 1-79.
Day, F., 1878. The fishes of India; being a natural history of the fishes known to inhabit the seas and fresh waters of India,, Burma, and Ceylon. Bernard Quaritch, London.
Deshayes, G. P., 1838. Description des coquilles fossiles recueillies en Crimée par M. de Verneuil, et observations générales à leur sujet. Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France 1(3), 37-69.
Diedrich, C. G., 2012. Eocene (Lutetian) shark-rich coastal paleoenvironments of the southern North Sea Basin in Europe: biodiversity of the marine Fürstenau Formation including early white and megatooth sharks. International Journal of Oceanography 2012, 565326. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/565326
Douvillé, H., 1922. Révision des Orbitoïdes. Deuxième partie: Orbitoïdes du Danien et de l’Éocène. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 4(22), 55-100.
Dutheil, D. B., Merle, D., 1992. Les chondrichthiens elasmobranches de la Tuilerie de Gan (Pyrénées Atlantiques, France). Cossmanniana 1(2–4), 15-26.
Ebersole, J. A., Cicimurri, D. J., Stringer, G. L., 2019. Taxonomy and biostratigraphy of the elasmobranchs and bony fishes (Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes) of the lower-to-middle Eocene (Ypresian to Bartonian) Claiborne Group in Alabama, U.S.A., including an analysis of otoliths. European Journal of Taxonomy 585, 1-274. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.585
Fabiani, R., 1905. Studio geo-paleontologico dei Colli Berici: Nota preventiva. Atti R. Ist. Veneto Sci., Lettere ed Arti Venezia 64, 1797-1839.
Fowler, H. W., 1934. Descriptions of new fishes obtained 1907 to 1910, chiefly in the Philippine Islands and adjacent seas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 85 (for 1933), 233-367.
Froese, R., Pauly, D. (eds.). 2019. FishBase, version (12/2019). World Wide Web electronic publication, accessed [12/2020], www.fishbase.org
Garman, S. 1885. Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garm. - A living species of Cladodont shark. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 12(1), 1–35.
Garman, S., 1908. New Plagiostomia and Chismopnea. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 51, 249-256.
Gill, T.,N., 1862. XXXII.-Analytical synopsis of the Order of Squali and revision of the nomenclature of the genera. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 7(32), 367-408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1862.tb00166.x
Glikman, L.S., 1964. Sharks of Paleogene and their stratigraphic significance. Nauka Press, Moscou. [in Russian].
Gonzàlez-Barba, G., Theis, D., 2000. Asociaciones faunisticas de condrictios en el Cenozoico de la Peninsula de Baja California, Mexico. Profil 18, 1-4.
Gupta, S., Kumar, K., 2013. Ziphodont crocodilian and other biotic remains from the Paleocene-basal Eocene Kakara Formation, NW Sub-Himalaya: palaeogeographic and palaeoecologic implications. Himalayan Geology 34, 172-182.
Hay, O. P., 1902. Bibliography and catalogue of the fossil Vertebrata of North America. Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories 179, 1-868. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.20094
Huxley, T. H., 1880. On the application of the laws of evolution to the arrangement of the vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880, 649-662.
Iserbty, A., De Schutter, P.J., 2012. Quantitative analysis of Elasmobranch assemblages from two successive Ypresian (early Eocene) facies at Marke, western Belgium. Geologica Belgica 15(3), 146–153.
Jaekel, O., 1894. Die eocänen Selachier vom Monte Bolca: ein Beitrag zur Morphogenie der Wirbelthiere / von Otto Jaekel. J. Springer, Berlin. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8458
Jordan, D. S., 1898. Description of a species of fish (Mitsukurina owstoni) from Japan, the type of a distinct family of lamnoid sharks. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 3, Zoology) 1(6), 199-204.
Jordan, D. S., Evermann, B. W., 1896. The fishes of north and middle America, a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part I. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 47, 1-1240. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.46755
Jordan, D. S., Gilbert, C. H., 1879. Notes on the fishes of Beaufort Harbor, North Carolina. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 1(55), 365-388. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.1-55.365.
Kajiura, S. M., Tricas, T. C. 1996. Seasonal dynamics of dental sexual dimorphism on the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina. Journal of Experimental Biology 199(10), 2297-2306.
Khare, S. K., 1976. Eocene fishes and arid turtles from the Subathu Formation, Beragua coal mine, Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 18, 36-43.
Kriwet, J., Benton, M. J., 2004. Neoselachian (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) diversity across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 214(3), 181-194. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.02.049
Kumar, K., 1989. A report on the occurrence of microvertebrates in the Subathu Formation (Montian-early Lutetian) near Nilkanth, Garhwal Himalaya, Uttar Pradesh, India. Current Science 58, 743-746.
Kumar, K., Loyal, R. S., 1987. Eocene Ichthyofauna from the Subathu Formation, northwestern Himalaya, India. Journal of the Paleontological Society of India 32, 60-84.
Kumar, K., Pandey, P., Kulshreshtha, S. K., Bhattacharya, D., Bhattacharya D., 2017. First record of Vertebrate fauna from Bandah Formation (middle Eocene) of the Jaisalmer Basin, Western Rajasthan, India. Indian Journal of Geoscience 71, 635-644.
Kumar, K., Pandey, P., Bajpai, S., Bhattacharya, D., Bhattacharya D., 2020. Middle Eocene (Bartonian) vertebrate fauna from Bandah Formation, Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan, Western India. Historical Biology. https://doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2020.1776708
Kumar, K., Rana, R. S., Singh, H., 2007. Fishes of the Khuiala Formation (early Eocene) of the Jaisalmer Basin, Western Rajasthan, India. Current Science 93, 553-559.
Last, P. R., Naylor, G. J. P., Mabel Manjaji-Matsumoto, B. 2016. A revised classification of the family Dasyatidae (Chondrichthyes, Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights. Zootaxa 4139(3), 345-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4139.3.2
Leidy, J., 1877. Description of vertebrate remains, chiefly from the Phosphate Beds of South Carolina. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8, 209-261.
Leriche, M., 1942. Contribution à l’étude des faunes ichthyologiques marines des terrains tertiaires de la Plaine Côtière Atlantique et du centre des Etats-Unis. Les synchronismes des formations tertiaires des deux côtés de l’Atlantique. Mémoires de la Société géologique de France 45(2-4), 1-110.
Lesueur, C. A., 1818. Description of several new species of North American fishes. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(1), 222-235. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.84.235
Lesson R. P., 1831. Poissons. In: Duperrey L.I. (Ed.), 1826–1830. Voyage autour du Monde, exécuté par Ordre du Roi, sur la Corvette de la Majeste, La Coquille, pendant les anneés, 1822, 1823, 1824 et, 1825: Arthus Bertrand, Paris, pp. 66-238.
Linck, H. F., 1790. Versuch einer Eintheilung der Fische nach den Zähnen. Magazin für das Neueste aus der Physik und Naturgeschichte 6(3), 28-38.
Marramà, G.,  Carnevale, G., Englebrecht, A., Claeson, K. M., Zorzin, R., 2018b. A synoptic review of the Eocene (Ypresian) cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali, Elasmobranchii) of the Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte, Italy. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 92(2), 283-313. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-017-0387-z
Marramà, G., Carnevale, G., Naylor, G. J., Varese, M., Guisberti, L., Kriwet, J., 2020. Anatomy, taxonomy and phylogeny of the Eocene guitarfishes from the Bolca Lagertatten, Italy, provide new insights into the relationships of the Rhinopristiformes (Elasmobranchii: Batomorphii). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 2020, zlaa125. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlaa125
Marramà, G., Englebrecht, A., Mörs, T., Reguero, M., Kriwet, J., 2018a. The southernmost occurrence of Brachycarcharias (Lamniformes, Odontaspididae) from the Eocene of Antarctica provides new information about the paleobiogeography and paleobiology of Paleogene sand tiger sharks. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 124(2), 283-297. https://doi.org/10.13130/2039-4942/9985
Menner, V. V., 1928. Les sélaciens du Paléogène de Manghyschlack, d’Emba et du versant oriental d’Oural. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, Section Géologique 6(3-4), 292-338.
Mishra, V.P., 1980. A new species of Myliobatis and some shark teeth from the middle Eocene of Kutch, Western India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 23/24, 81–85.
Müller, A., 1999. Ichthyofaunen aus dem atlantischen Tertiär der USA. Leipziger Geowissenschaften 9-10, 1-360.
Müller, J., Henle, F. G.,J., 1837. Gattungen der Haifische und Rochen nach einer von ihm mit Hrn. Henle unternommenen gemeinschaftlichen Arbeit über die Naturgeschichte der Knorpelfische. Berichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 111-118.
Müller, J., Henle, F. G. J., 1839. Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. Veit and Company, Berlin. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.6906
Murray, A. M., Cook, T. D., Attia, Y. S., Chatrath, P., Simons, E. L., 2010. A freshwater ichthyofauna from the late Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Fayum, Egypt. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30, 665-680. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724631003758060
Naylor, G. J. P., Caira, J. N., Jensen, K., Rosana, K. A. M., Straube, N., Lakner, C., 2012. Elasmobranch phylogeny, a mitochondrial estimate based on 595 Species. In: Carrier, J. C., Musick, J. A., Heithaus, R. M. (eds,), Biology of Sharks and their Relatives, Edition 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 31–56.
Nelson, J. S., Grande, T. C., Wilson, M.V.H., 2016. Fishes of the World, fifth edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken.
Nuttall, W. L. F., 1925. .XLVIII.-Two species of Eocene Foraminifera from India. Alveolina elliptica and Dictyoconoides cooki. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9 16(94), 378-388. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222932508633324
Nuttall, W. L. F., 1926a. The zonal distribution and description of the larger foraminifera of the middle and lower Kirthar Series (Middle Eocene) of parts of western India. Records of the Geological Survey of India 59, 115-164. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800085472
Nuttall, W. L. F., 1926b. The Larger Foraminifera of the Upper Ranikot Series (Lower Eocene) of Sind, India. Geological Magazine 63(3), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800083850
Pandey, D. K., Chaskar, K., Case, G. R., 2018. Two fossil shark teeth from lower Eocene shales of the Khuiala Formation, Jaisalmer Basin, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 63, 155-161.
Péron, F., Lesueur, C. A., 1822. Description of a Squalus, of a very large size, which was taken on the coast of New Jersey. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2 (1), 343-352.
Priem, F., 1905. Sur des poissons fossiles de l’Éocène moyen d’Égypte. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 4, 633-641.
Priem, M. F., 1909. Note sur les poissons fossiles des phosphates de Tunisie et d’Algérie. Extrait du Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 4(9), 315-324.
Rafinesque, C. S., 1810a. Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e pinate della Sicilia, con varie osservazioni sopra i medisimi, lère partie 1, 3-69.
Rafinesque, C.S., 1810b. Indice d’ittiologia siciliana; ossia, catalogo metodico dei nomi latini, italiani, e siciliani dei psci, che si rinvengono in Sicilia disposti secondo un metodo naturale e seguito da un appendice che contiene la descrizione di alcu. ni nuovi pesci siciliani. Presso Giovanni del Nobolo, Messina. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.58965
Rai, J., Singh, A., Gulati, D., 2014. Bartonian age calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Tanot well-1, Jaisalmer Basin and its implications. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 59(1), 29-44.
Raju, D. S .N., 2018. Paleogene stratigraphy of India: an overview. In: Bajpai, S., Tripathi, S. C., Prasad, V. (Eds.), The Indian Paleogene. Springer International Publishing AG, Gewerbestrasse, Switzerland, pp. 1-89.
Rajkumari, P., Prasad, G. V. R., 2020. New chondrichthyan fauna from the Palaeogene deposits of Barmer District, Rajasthan, western India: Age, palaeoenvironment and intercontinental affinities. Geobios 58, 55-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2019.11.002
Rana, R. S., Kumar, K., Loyal, R. S., Sahni, A., Rose, K. D., Mussell, J., Singh, H., Kulshreshtha, S. K., 2006. Selachians from the early Eocene Kapurdi Formation (Fuller’s Earth), Barmer District, Rajasthan, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 67, 509-522.
Rana, R. S., Kumar, K., Singh, H., 2004. Vertebrate fauna from the subsurface Cambay Shale (Lower Eocene), Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India. Current Science 89, 1026-1033.
Rana, R. S., Kumar, K., Singh, H., 2005. Lower vertebrates from the Late Palaeocene–Earliest Eocene Akli formation, Giral Lignite Mine, Barmer District, Western India. Current Science 89, 1606-1612.
Reinecke, T., Moths, H., Grant, A., Breitkreuz, H., 2005. Die Elasmobranchier des norddeutschen Chattiums, insbesondere des Sternberger Gesteins (Eochattium, Oligozän). Palaeontos 8: 1-135.
Roissy, F., 1805. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Mollusques; livre faisant suite aux œuvres de Buffon, et partie du cours complet d’Histoire naturelle rédigé par C. S. Sonnini. Paris, Dufart. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.51804
Rozlozsnik, P., Harpe, P., de la, 1926. Matériaux pour servir à une monographie des Nummulines et Assilines. D’après les manuscrits inédits de Prof. Philippe de La Harpe. Magyar Királyi Földtani Intézet évkönyve 27(1), 1-102.
Rüppell, W. P. E. S., 1835-1838. Neue Wirbeltiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres. Schmerber, Frankfurt am Main. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.53778
Sahni, A., Mehrotra, D. K., 1981. The elasmobranch fauna of coastal Miocene sediments of peninsular India. Biological Memoirs Lucknow 5, 83-121.
Sahni, A., Mishra, V. P., 1975. Lower Tertiary vertebrates from Western India. Monograph of the Palaeontological Society of India 3, 1-48.
Sahni, A., Batra, R. S., Bhatia, S. B., 1984. Vertebrate assemblage from the Upper Subathu (Middle Eocene) of the Bilaspur area, Himachal Pradesh, India. Proceedings of the 10th Indian Colloquium of Micropaleontology and Stratigraphy, 357-368.
Salame, I., Asan, A., 2019. A new Odontorhytis species (Chondrichthyes) from the Middle Eocene of Elgedida mine, Bahariya oasis, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Geology 63, 407-415.
Sambou, B. S., Hautier, L., Sarr, R., Tabuce, R., Lihoreau, F., Thiamb, M., Lebrun, R., Martin, J. E., Cappetta, H., Adnet, S., 2020. Contribution to the reappraisal of the mid Paleogene ichtyofauna of Western Africa with three new enigmatical elasmobranchs from Thanetian–Lutetian of Senegal. Annales de Paléontologie 106, 102400. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.annpal.2020.102400
Samonds, K. E., Andrianavalona, T. H., Wallett, L. A., Zalmout, I. S., Ward, D. J., 2019. A Middle-late Eocene neoselachian assemblage from nearshore marine deposits, Mahajanga Basin, northwestern Madagascar. PLoS ONE 14(2), e0211789. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0211789
Shepard, C., Brenner, J., Goodin, K. L., Ames, K. W., 2018. Chapter 5: Ecological Resilience Indicators for Oyster Ecosystems. In: Goodin, K. L., Faber-Langendoen, D., Brenner, J.,  Allen, S. T., Day, R. H., Congdon, V. M., Shepard, C., Cummings, K. E., Stagg, C. L., Gabler, C. A., Dunton, K. H., Ruzicka, R. R., Semon-Lunz, K., Reed, D., Ames, K. W., Love, M. (Eds.), Ecological Resilience Indicators for Five Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. 40 pages.
Singh, N. P., 1976. Micropalaeontological control in subsurface Tertiary sequence of Jaisalmer Basin, Western Rajasthan, India. Proceedings of the 6th Indian Colloquium Micropalaeontology Stratigraphy, 259-278.
Singh, N. P., 1984. Addition to the Tertiary biostratigraphy of Jaisalmer Basin. Petroleum Asia Journal 2(1), 106-128.
Singh, N. P., 1996. Mesozoic-Tertiary biostratigraphy and biogeochronological datum planes in Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan. In: Pandey, J., Azmi, R. J., Bhandari, A., Deva, A. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th Indian Colloquium of Micropaleontology and Stratigraphy 1996, 63-89.
Singh N. P., 2003. Contribution of biostratigraphic studies in stratigraphic evaluation of west Rajasthan shelf. Gondwana Geology Magazine Special Volume 6, 79-104.
Singh, N. P., 2007. Cenozoic lithostratigraphy of the Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 52(2), 129-154.
Singh, S. N., 1971. Planktonic Foraminifera in Eocene Stratigraphy of Rajasthan. Proceedings of the 2nd Planktonic Conference, Roma, 1169-1181.
Souverein, P., Stoel, P. B., 1995. Fossiele haaietanden uit het Tertiair van Cadzand. Grondboor en Hamer 49(3/4), 51-53.
Sowerby, J., 1840. Systematic list of organic remains, Appendix to Grant, C. W., Memoir to illustrate a geological map of Cutch. Transactions of the Geological Society of London. 2(5), 327-329.
Stromer, E., 1910. Reptilien- und Fischreste aus dem marinen Alttertiär von Südtogo (Westafrika). Monatsbericht der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft 62(7), 478-505.
Strougo, A., Cappetta, H., Elnahas, S. A., 2007. Remarkable Eocene ichthyofauna from the ElGedida glauconitic sandstone, Bahariya oasis, Egypt, and its stratigraphic implications. MERC Ain Shams University, Earth Sciences Series 21, 81-98.
Tabuce, R., Adnet, S., Cappetta, H., Noubhani, A., Quillevéré, F., 2005. Aznag (bassin d’Ouarzazate, Maroc), nouvelle localité à sélaciens et mammifères de l’Eocène moyen (Lutétien) d’Afrique. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 176, 381-400. http://doi.org/10.2113/176.4.381
Tanaka, T., Fujita, Y., Morinobu, S., 2006. Fossil shark teeth from the Namigata Formation in Ibara City, Okayama Prefecture, Central Japan and their biostratigraphical significance. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum 33, 103-109.
Underwood, C. J., Gunter, G. C., 2012. The shark Carcharhinus sp. from the middle Eocene of Jamaica and the Eocene record of Carcharhinus. Caribbean Journal of Earth Science 44, 25-30.
Underwood, C. J., Ward, D .J., King, C., Antar, S. M., Zalmout, I. S., Gingerich, P. D., 2011. Shark and ray faunas in the middle and late Eocene of the Fayum Area, Egypt. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 122, 47-66. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pgeola.2010.09.004
Van den Eeckhaut, G., De Schutter, P., 2009. The elasmobranch fauna of the Lede Sand Formation at Oosterzele (Lutetian, middle Eocene of Belgium). Palaeofocus 1, 1-57.
Verbeek, R. D. M., 1871. Die Nummuliten des Borneo-Kalksteines. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie B9, 1-14.
Verbeek, R. D. M., 1880. Geologische Notizen über die Inseln des Niederländisch-Indischen Archipels im Allgemeinen, und über die fossilführenden Sumatra’s im Besonderen. Palaeontographica. 1880(9), 7-28.
Verbeek, R. D. M., 1891. Voorlopig bericht over den Nummulieten, Orbitoiden en Alveolinen van Java, en over den ouderdom der gesteenten waarin zij optreden. Natuurkundig tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, 51(12), 101-139.
Villalobos-Segura, E., Underwood, C. J., 2020. Radiation and divergence times of Batoidea. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1777147, 1-11. http://doi:10.1080/02724634.1777147
Voigt, M., Weber, D., 2011. Field Guide for Sharks of the Genus Carcharhinus. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfiel, München.
Ward, D. J., Wiest, R. L., 1990. A checklist of Palaeocene and Eocene sharks and rays (Chondrichthyes) from the Pamunkey Group, Maryland and Virginia, USA. Tertiary Research 12(2), 81-88.
White, E. I., 1926. Eocene fishes from Nigeria. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Nigeria 10, 1-82. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a100500
White, E. I., 1931. The vertebrate faunas of the English Eocene: Vol. 1. From the Thanet Sands to the Basement Bed of the London Clay. British Museum (Natural History), London. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800095820
White, E. I., 1934. Fossil fishes of Sokoto province. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Nigeria 14, 1-78.
White, E. I., 1955. Notes on African Tertiary sharks. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Nigeria 5(3), 319-325.
White, E. I., 1956. The Eocene fishes of Alabama. Bulletins of American Paleontology 36, 123-150.
Whitley, G. P., 1929. Additions to the check-list of the fishes of New South Wales. No. 2. Australian Zoologist 5(4), 353-357. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.21645
Whitley, G. P., 1934. Notes on some Australian sharks. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 10(4), 180-200.
Winkler, T. C., 1873. Deuxième mémoire sur des dents de poissons fossiles du terrain bruxellien. Archives du Musée Teyler 4(1),16-48.
Winkler, T. C., 1874. Mémoire sur des dents de poissons du terrain bruxellien. Archives du Musée Teyler 3, 285-304. 


PDF