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Schmelzmikrostruktur in den inzisiven alt-und neuweltlicher histricognather nagetiere
Thomas Martin
Keywords: Africa; Caviomorpha; Ctenodactyloidea; Deseadan; Enamel microstructure; Hunter-Schreger bands; Hystricognathi; Incisors; Ischyromyoidea; multiserial; Paleobiogeography; pauciserial; Phiomorpha; Rodentia; South America
 
  Abstract

    Enamel microstructure in the incisors of Old- and New World hystricognath rodents:

    The incisor enamel microstructure in more than 100 genera of fossil and Recent hystricognath and sciurognath rodents was studied. A multiserial schmelzmuster is present in the Hystricognathi, the Ctenodactylidae, advanced Chapattimyidae, and in Pedetes. A redefinition of pauciserial and multiserial HSB is given that makes the two enamel types unambiguously distinguishable which apparently represent well defined evolutionary levels. In the pauciserial Schmelzmuster the IPM is thicker than in the multiserial one. In pauciserial HSB the IPM always surrounds each prism, and the crystallites of the IPM run parallel to prism direction; transition zones between HSB are lacking; the inclination of the HSB is normally very low and the prism cross sections are not flattened but somewhat irregular. The number of prisms per HSB is no good distinctive character for pauciserial and multiserial HSB, since there exists a wide overlap. The pauciserial schmelzmuster is primitive, the multiseiial derived because: 1. the pauciseiial schmelzmuster appears earlier in the fossil record in the most primitive rodents (Paramyids s.l. and Ctenodactyloids); 2. the Eocene Ctenodactyloidea show pauciserial HSB but the Oligocene and younger ones are characterized by multiserial HSB; 3. in the outgroup comparison, the Eurymylidae (Mixodontia) show pauciserial HSB; 4. biomechanically, multiserial HSB strenghten the enamel better than pauciserial HSB, since their IPM runs nearly always in an angle of 45° or more to the prisms.

    In multiseríal HSB three subtypes can be distinguished which are differentiated by the IPM orientation. Primitive is a (rarely strict) parallel or acute angular, anastomozing IPM, and derived is an interrow sheet-like ("plattenartige") IPM. This evolutionary polarity is indicated by enamel evolution in the Ctenodactylidae which show an acute angular IPM in the Oligocene and a rectangular interrow sheet-like IPM since the Miocene. Among the Caviomorpha a rectangular interrow sheet-like IPM is restricted to the Octodontoidea; therefore they must be considered derived in terms of their enamel structure. The first multiserial HSB in rodent incisors appear in phiomyids or chapatrimyids from the Upper Eocene of Algeria. The IPM is acute angular and anastomozing. The worldwide next younger multiserial HSB are found in Lower Oligocene phiomyids of Fayum, Egypt There already a rectangular interrow sheet like IPM is present (in Metaphiomys) besides the acute angular anastomozing IPM.

    The first Caviomorpha from the Deseadan (Oligocene-Miocene) likewise show already acute angular anastomozing IPM (e.g. Scozamys) and rectangular interrow sheet-like IPM (Platypittamys). Therefore the first Caviomorpha cannot be positioned close to a transition from pauciserial to multiserial HSB. In none of the potential caviomorph ancestors from southern North America multiserial HSB or transitional stage between pauciserial and multiserial HSB could be found. The similarities between the enamel types of the Fayum rodents and the rodents from the Deseadan of South America make a derivation of the Caviomorpha from Paleogene North African phiomorph rodents or their direct ancestors most probable. This supports at the same time a descent of the platyrrhine Primates from North African anthropoids.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 21, Ext (1992)

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Systematic and evolutionary relationships of the hipparionine horses from Maragheh, Iran (Late Miocene, Turolian age)
Raymond L. Bernor
Keywords: evolution; Hipparionine horses; Iran; systematics; Turolian
 
  Abstract

    A systematic analysis of an hipparionine horse assemblage from Maragheh, Iran is made. A brief orientation to systematic philosophy and informal superspecific characterizations of some Old World hipparionines is given as a background to this work. A character state analysis of skulls is made, and has revealed five distinct species. A character state and stratigraphic trend analysis of isolated check tooth and postcranial remains, with known provenance, is also made. These two combined analyses reveal that the most resolute discrimination of hipparionine species and their evolutionary relationships occurs when multiple character complexes of associated skulls, maxillary and mandibular dentitions are made. When this is not possible, skulls have provided the best basis for discriminating species and their evolutionary relationships. Traditional characters of isolated cheek teeth and postcranial remains are shown here to offer limited information content for hipparionine phylogenetic systematics. The systematic portion of this study includes a comprehensive description of cranial and postcranial remains, and has further corroborated the distinction of five species which belong to at least three superspecific groups including: «Hipparion» geltyi sp. nov., Group 1; Hipparion prostylum (s. l.), and Hipparion campbelli sp. nov., Group 3; «Hipparíon» aff. moldavicum and «Hipparion» ?matthewi, Group 2. These species stratigraphic ranges and evolutionary relationships are also given here and argued to be important for establishing future hipparionine geochronologic correlations between a number of Eurasian late Miocene provinces. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 15, Fasc. 4 (1985)

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Acinoptèrygiens du Stéphanien de Montceau-les-Mines (Saône-et-Loire, France).
Daniel Heyler and Cécile Poplin
Keywords: Aeduelliforms; Biogeography; Palaeonisciforms; paramblypteriforms; Stephanien
 
  Abstract

    The study of new specimens from the Stephanian shales of Montceau-les-Mines confirms and enlarges the number of groups already known in this area. Among the Palaeonisciforms, “form A" is now known more completely, although no diagnosis or name can yet be given for it. “Form B" is redescribed and its relationships with “Elonichthys robisoni" are discussed. A palaeoniscid is recorded which resembles those from Bourbon l'Archambault. The paramblypteriforms occur rather frequently, but no genera can be determined. The aeduelliforms comprise some specimens close to Aeduella blainvíllei from Muse (Autun basin), and a new genus. Comparison of the latter with two fossils from Lally allows creation of two new species and a new family. This diversification of the aeduelliforms during this middle Stephanian leads to the hypothesis that the group originated at least as early the lower Stephanian. This material prooves again the characteristic endemism of this fauna, particularly of the aeduelliforms which are known only in the Massif Central where they diversified during the Permo-Carboniferous. Biogeographical consequences are discussed. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 13, Fasc. 3 (1983)

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La palichnofaune de vertébrés tétrapodes du permien supérieur du Bassin de Lodève (Languedoc-France).
Georges Gand, Jacques Garric, Georges Demathieu and Paul Ellenberger
Keywords: Footprints; France; Languedoc; Lodève basin; new ichnotypus; Saxonian; Upper Permian
 
  Abstract

    Near "la Lieude", in the Lodève basin, more than a thousand of footprints are distributed in a twenty of trackways which amounts to 220 m length. They have been found on calcareous siltstone level in the B site named also "Réserve Naturelle Volontaire". This last is located in the Saxonian summit dated Upper Permian. "La Lieude" tracks are described by using statistical methods then they are compared with others from the world Permian. What allows to distinguish 4 following ichnotaxa: Lunaepes ollierorum nov.ichnosp., Merifontichnus thalerius nov. ichnogen. and nov. ichnosp., Planipes brachydactylus nov.ichnosp. and Brontopus circagiganteus nov. ichnosp. All these traces are attributed with possibility or probability to Therapsida or to Therosauria, except Brontopus circagiganteus nov. ichnosp. that could be due to Caseamorpha. All these animals whose sizes have been estimated between l and 5 m lived probably in a playa environment.The biological and sedimentological data from "la Lieude" footprints levels compared with informations provided by the tracks orientations, suggest the following scenario. Animals coming from the North have crossed a sandy channel bank with plants zones by directing to the South for the majority. Maybe, they were going to the lacustrine part of the playa, close to "la Lieude" footprints that they have just trampled on. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 29, Fasc. 1 (2000)

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Mammals and stratigraphy : Geochronology of the continental mammal-bearing Tertiary of south America.
Larry G. Marshall, Robert Hoffstetter and Rosendo Pascual
Keywords: Cenozoic; Geochronology; Mammalia; South America; Stratigraphy; Tertiary
 
  Abstract

    The principles and practices employed in establishment and recognition of South American land mammal ages are reviewed along with previous and present concepts of distinguishing time, rock, and faunal units. Previous chronological arrangements of South American Tertiary land mammal faunas are appraised on the basis of recent geological and paleontological data. Twelve South American Tertiary land mammal ages are here recognized [from oldest to youngest, Riochican (middle to late Paleocene); Casamayoran (early Eocene); Mustersan (middle Eocene); Divisaderan (late Eocene); Deseadan (early [to middle?] Oligocene); Colhuehuapian (late Oligocene); Santacrucian (early Miocene); Friasan (middle Miocene); Chasicoan (late Miocene); Huayquerian (latest Miocene); Montehermosan (early to middle Pliocene); and Chapadmalalan (late Pliocene)]. As all except the Friasian were originally defined on the basis of Argentine faunas, these are discussed first and at length, and each is reviewed with discussion of type locality, stratigraphy, type fauna, and faunal correlations. Non-Argentine faunas are then discussed country by country in alphabetical order.

         A review is given of radioisotope dates obtained on volcanic rocks (i.e., basalts, tuffs) associated with mammalbearing beds in Argentina. Based on these age determinations and on correlation of the late Tertiary land mammals involved in the interchange between North and South America, a chronology of South American land mammal ages correlated with North American land mammal ages and European marine stages is proposed.

    It is concluded that South America was an island continent through most of the Tertiary Period (ca 65 to about 3 Ma). As a result, the land mammal fauna of South America developed in isolation and was dominated by autochthonous endemic groups. Toward the end of the Tertiary (i.e., middle Miocene) a unique faunal balance had been achieved by the descendants of the ancient inhabitants (notoungulates, litopterns, condylarths, astrapotheres, edentates, marsupials) and of later (late Eocene) waif immigrants (caviomorph rodents, platyrrhine primates). A prominent feature of this mammal fauna was the combination of carnivorous and omnivorous marsupials with native placental herbivorous ungulates, subungulates, and edentates.

    Sometime during the late Miocene, a limited but important interchange of mammalian taxa between North and South America took place. Procyonids (raccoons and their allies), a group of North American origin, first appear in South America in strata of Huayquerian Age, while members of the extinct South American ground sloth families Megalonychidae and Mylodontidae first appear in North America in early Hemphillian time. These groups dispersed along island arcs before the appearance of the Panamanian land bridge in the Pliocene (ca 3.0 Ma). Cricetine rodents, a group of North American origin, are first known in South America in strata of Montehermosan Age. The known taxa are too advanced and diversified to be considered the first of this group to invade South America. lt is believed by some workers that these rodents arrived before the Montehermosan, possibly in the late Miocene or earlier, by waif dispersal from North America.

    The isolation of South America ended with the appearance of the Panamanian land bridge, which provided a direct, dry land connection between the two Americas. Across this portal an extensive interchange of terrestrial faunas occurred, and the fossil record documents an intermingling of these long-separated land mammals faunas.

          The beginning of this interchange by land route in South America is marked by the appearance of mammals which evolved from North American emigrants in the Chapadmalal Formation of Argentina. These include a mustelid (Conepatus), a tayassuid (Argyrohyus), and four genera (Akodon, Dankomys, Graomys, Reithrodon) of cricetine rodents. The appearance of this contingent of northern animals favors the existence of the Panamanian land bridge by this time. Likewise, a large number of terrestrial vertebrates of South American origin appear in North America in beds of late Blancan Age date around 2.7 Ma. Among the mammals are Neochoerus, Erethizon, Glyptotherium, Glossotherium, Kraglievichia, and Dasypus


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 13, Ext (1983)

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Les pantolestidés (Mammalia, Pantolesta) de l'Eocène inférieur de Prémontré (Aisne, France).
Richard Smith
Keywords: France; Mammals; Pantolestids; Ypresian
 
  Abstract

    Study of pantolestid mammals from the late Ypresian locality of Prémontré (reference level MP 10) allows the recognition of three genera: Palaeosinopa. Pantolestes and Premontrelestes n. gen. Pantolestes, up to now only recorded from North America, is represented by P. sabatieri n. sp. Premontrelestes n. gen., represented by the type species P. duchaussoisi n. sp., is compared with Pantolestes and Buxolestes. The latter, known from middle Eocene sites in Europe, has not been recognized at Prémontré. Two other taxa, the first of which is close to Pantolestes and the second of Premontrelestes n. gen. are left in open nomenclature.    


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 30, Fasc. 1-2 (2001)

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Présence de Palaeobatrachidae (Anura) dans des gisements tertiaires Français caractérisation, distribution et affinités de la famille
Colette Vergnaud-Grazzini and Robert Hoffstetter
Keywords: Anura; Palaeogeography; systematics
 
  Abstract

    The Palaeobatrachidae until now have not been reported from France. The present note makes known the discovery of very significant remains in three Tertiary localities of France: Cernay (late Paleocene), Laugnac (late Aquitanian) and Sansan (middle Helvetian). The osteologic characters, as well as the geographic and stratigraphic distribution of the family are re-stated with added details. The Palaeobatrachidae are a European family known from the late Jurassic of Catalonia (publication in course by J. Seiffert) to the Plio-Pleistocene (pre-Mindel) of Poland and Rumania. By their way of life and certain osteologic characters they are similar to the Pipidae, but they are distinguished by profound differences. It would be rash to include them in the Pipoidea or even in the Aglossa. They are apparently an independant group, essentially holarctic, which held in Europe a role equivalent to that played by the Pipidae south of Tethys. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 05, Fasc. 4 (1972)

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Contributions à l'étude du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. 8 - Analyse paléoécologique de la faune mammalienne
Serge Legendre
Keywords: France; Mammalia; Montredon; Paleoecology; Upper Miocene
 
  Abstract

    The species diversity of the mammalian fauna from Montredon (Hérault, France, late Miocene) is examined in terms of richness and abundance. A cenogramic analysis of the fossil mammalian community suggests the prevalence of open habitats, with the presence of marshes and of a poorly developed galery forest, and a climate rather warm and dry. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)

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New remains of the very small cuckoo, Chambicuculus pusillus (Aves, Cuculiformes, Cuculidae) from the late Early/early Middle Eocene of Djebel Chambi, Tunisia
Cécile Mourer-Chauviré, El M. Essid, Hayet Khayati Ammar, Laurent Marivaux, Wissem Marzougui, Rim Temani, Monique Vianey-Liaud and Rodolphe Tabuce
Keywords: Cuckoos; Eocene; Fossil bird

doi: 10.18563/pv.40.1.e2
 
  Abstract

    Abstract: A very tiny cuckoo, Chambicuculus pusillus, was recently described after a few fragments of tarsometatarsi from the late Early/early Middle Eocene of Djebel Chambi, Tunisia. New remains, notably a coracoid, confirm the attribution of this genus to the recent family Cuculidae. This coracoid shows a very elongate and strap-like processus procoracoideus. This morphological feature is otherwise only known in the family Cuculidae. The characteristics of the coracoid and tarsometatarsi show that Chambicuculus is morphologically more advanced over the other stem cuculids described in Europe and North America. Chambicuculus is the oldest Cuculidae known so far. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol.40-1 (2016)

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Contributions à l'étude des micromammifères du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). 4 - Les chiroptères
Bernard Sigé
Keywords: Chiroptera; Hérault; Late Miocene; Micromammals; Montredon
 
  Abstract

    The Montredon local fauna yielded very rare bats, represented by damaged isolated teeth. Only a few documents are available for this period of the European Neogene. ln this poor state of knowledge, the material represents three undetermined species, a supposed molossid and two vespertilionids. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 12, Fasc. 3 (1982)

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Pronycticebus neglectus - an almost complete adapid primate specimen from the Geiseltal (GDR)
Urs Thalmann, Hartmut Haubold and Robert D. Martin
Keywords: Adapiformes; Eocene; Paleoecology; Phylogeny; Pronycticebus neglectus
 
  Abstract

    In the course of the current revision of adapid primates from the Eocene Geiseltal, an almost complete specimen was found in the Geiseltal Museum collections. The fossil, the most complete adapid specimen so far discovered in Europe, has been determined as Pronycticebus neglectus n. sp.
    Ecology and locomotion as well as the likely phylogenetic position within the infraorder Adapiformes are discussed. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 3 (1989)

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Les Gruiformes (Aves) des phosphorites du Quercy (France). 1. sous-ordre cariamae (Cariamidae et Phorusrhacidae), systématique et biostratigraphie.
Cécile Mourer-Chauviré
Keywords: Aves; Biostratigraphy; Birds; Cariamae; gruiformes; Quercy phosphorites; systematics
 
  Abstract

    The revision of the old collections of fossil birds from the “Phosphorites du Quercy” and the study of new material give the following results (Gruiformes, Cariamae) :  The humeri and most of the carpometacarpi described under the name Filholornis belong in Elaphrocnemus. The ulnae ascribed to Fïlholornis belong in Idiornis. Most of the post-cranial elements of the genera Elaphrocnemus and Idiornis are described and show great similarities with recent Cariamidae and Opisthocomidae, and fossil Bathornithinae.  A new genus and a new species, Oblitavis insolitus, are created in the sub-family Idiornithinae; two new species are described in the genera Elaphrocnemus (E. brodkorbz) and Idiornis (I. itardiensis), and the species Elaphrocnemus gracilis is transferred to the genus Idiornis.  The genus Propelargus Lydekker is transferred from the family Ciconiidae to Cariamidae.  A new generic name, Occitaniavis, is created for the species Geranopsis elatus, which belong in Cariamidae, while the type-species of the genus, Geranopsis hastingsiae, is a member of the Gruidae.  The affinities between the Quercy avifauna and the Neotropical one is emphasized by the occurrence of Phorusrhacidae, previously known only from the Cenozoic of South America and the Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene of North America. Thanks to the material collected during the new excavations, the stratigraphical position of most of the species is stated precisely, and evolutionary lineages are outlined. This study shows that the suborder Cariamae, presently restricted to two South American genera, was already extremely diversified during the Eocene, and widespread in Europe and North America. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 13, Fasc. 4 (1983)

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A primitive Emballonurid bat (Chiroptera, Mammalia) from the Earliest Eocene of England
Jerry J. Hooker
Keywords: bats; Early Eocene; Emballonuridae; Origins; Phylogeny
 
  Abstract

    A new genus, Eppsillycteris, is erected for Adapisorex? allglicus COOPER, 1932, from the earliest Eocene Blackheath Beds of Abbey Wood, London, England. Various derived character states indicate that it belongs to the order Chiroptera (bats) rather than to the extinct "insectivore" family Adapisoricidae. Other derived character states are shared with fossil and modern members of the family Emballonuridae. Placement of the new genus in this family extends the record of the Emballonuridae back in time by about 10 million years. It is the earliest record of a modern bat family and one of the earliest bats. This implies that the differentiation of at least some modern bat families took place in the Palaeocene, where no authenticated records of bats yet exist. The primitive characters of the earliest bats make the family Nyctitheriidae an unlikely stem group for the order Chiroptera. A tentative plausible alternative exists in some unnamed upper molars from the Palaeocene of Walbeck, Germany. Wyollycteris chalix, described as a bat from the Late Palaeocene of Wyoming, U,S.A., fits better in the family Nyctitheriidae. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Archosauriform teeth from the upper Triassic of Saint Nicolas-de-Port (Northeastern France).
Pascal Godefroit and Gilles Cuny
Keywords: Archosauriforms; Graoullyodon hacheti; Saint-Nicolas-de-port; Teeth; Upper Triassic
 
  Abstract

    The Late Triassic locality of Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (Meurthe-et-Moselle, France) has yielded numerous isolated teeth belonging to archosauriform reptiles. The following tooth groups can be identified: heterodont phytosaurs, the pterosaur Eudimorphodon, the prosauropod dinosaur Plateosaurus, three types of putative ornithischian teeth and 13 types of carnivorous Archosauriformes indet. Apparent venom-conducting teeth belonging to a new taxon of ?Archosauriformes (Graoullyodon hacheti nov. gen. nov. sp.) are also described. From a palaeogeographical point of view, the ornithischian teeth from Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (if their attribution is confirmed) are the oldest fossils of this group in Europe. The biostratigraphic distribution of the tooth forms mostly suggests a Late Norian or Early Rhaetian (depending on current interpretations) age of the deposits, but do not provide more precisions than fossils previously described from the area. The dietary habits and, consequently, the palaeoecological relationships of the different vertebrate groups discovered at Saint-Nicolas-de-Port are tentatively established: the ornithischian and prosauropod teeth reflect a herbivorous diet, whereas the other archosauriform teeth are probably from camivores or omnivores.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 26, Fasc. 1-4 (1997)

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Nouvelles données sur les mammifères du Thanétien et de l'Yprésien du bassin d'Ouarzazate (Maroc) et leur contexte stratigraphique.
Emmanuel Gheerbrant, Jean Sudre, Sevket Sen, Claude Abrial, Bernard Marandat, Bernard Sigé and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: early Paleogene; magnetostratigraphy; Mammals; Morocco; North Africa; Ouarzazatz basin; systematics
 
  Abstract

    New faunal and stratigraphical data on the vertebrates localities from the early Paleogene of the Ouarzazate Basin (Adrar Mgorn 1, Adrar Mgorn 1 bis et N'Tagourt 2), Morocco, are presented. A magnetostratigraphical study, the first for such early Paleogene Arabo-African mammal localities, and the discovery of probable remains of the nannofossil Discoaster support the Thanetian age of the Adrar Mgorn 1 site. The magnetostratigraphy suggests a slightly later age than was thought for the Paleogene formations of the local series of Tinerhir and for the vertebrate localities: late or latest Thanetian for Adrar Mgorn 1 and Adrar Mgorn 1 bis, middle Ypresian for N'Tagourt 2. It also indicates a lower position of the KT boundary in the series. Two tons of matrix recovered in the vertebrate sites have vielded new data on the micromammals. A damaged lower molar from N'Tagourt 2 is referable to Khamsaconus bulbosus  and supports the proboscidean affinities of this species and especially possible relationships with bunolophodont taxa such as elephantiforms. A lower molar from Adrar Mgorn 1 bis belongs to a new form which can be identified as a plesiadapiform or an euprimate close to Altiatlasius koulchii though significantly larger. A new material from Adrar Mgorn 1 illustrates a new dilambdodont adapisoriculid species which is referable to Garatherium : ?Garatherium todrae n. sp. Another species referred to Garatherium is known in the locality (?Garatherium n. sp.). Garatherium is a new lineage from the Ouarzazate basin which crosses the Paleocene-Eocene boundary together with Palaeoryctes, Didelphodontinae gen. and sp. 2, Todralestes, and Afrodon, and it is the first Paleocene-Eocene lineage identified outside of this basin (Garatheríum is based on a species from El Kohol, Algeria). Among the Paleocene-Eocene lineages from the Ouarzazate basin, it should be also mentioned a new possible carnassial form (carnivoran or creodont; Adrar Mgorn 1), and an upper molar of Cimolestes cf. incisus (Adrar Mgorn 1 bis). The upper molar THR 168 previously reported as from an indeterminate didelphodontine is here identified as the M1/ of Afrodon chleuhi. The micromammal faunas from the Ouarzazate basin are positioned in the global chronological framework of the mammal localities from the Paleogene of the Arabo-African domain. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 27, Fasc. 3-4 (1998)

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Types dentaires adaptatifs chez les sélaciens actuels et post-paléozoïques.
Henri Cappetta
Keywords: Dental types; evolution; Fossil selachians; Recent selachians; Trophic adaptations
 
  Abstract

    The dentition of selachians is characterized by an often very pronounced heterodonty involving a great morphological diversity. Despite this fact, the dentitions of selachians can be grouped in a rather reduced number of dental types corresponding to trophic adaptations: grasping, tearing, cutting, crushing, grinding and grasping-grinding type. The numerous exemples of convergence and parallelism that can be observed in fossil selachians and between Recent and fossil ones is the result of this reduced number of dental types. These dental specialisations allow to try a reconstruction of the way of life of fossil forms. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 2 (1986)

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Critical comments on the genus Propachynolophus Lemoine, 1891 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equoidea)
 
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: Eocene; Eurohippus; Pachynolophus; Propalaeotherium; tooth morphology

doi: 10.18563/pv.41.1.e3
 
  Abstract

    Abstract
     The validity of Propachynolophus Lemoine, 1891, supposedly an intermediate between Hyracotherium Owen, 1841 and Pachynolophus Pomel, 1847, has been questioned for a long time. A detailed analysis of features on which this genus is based further supported by a formal cladistic analysis demonstrates that Propachynolophus is not a valid taxon. The type species, “Propachynolophus gaudryi Lemoine, 1891” shall be assigned to Propalaeotherium Gervais, 1849, under the new combination Propalaeotherium gaudryi (Lemoine, 1891). “Pachynolophus maldani Lemoine, 1878”, later assigned to Propachynolophus, typifies the new genus Orolophus, under the binomen Orolophus maldani (Lemoine, 1878). The other referred species, “Propachynolophus levei Hooker, 1994” and “P. remyi Checa-Soler, 1997” are poorly documented, and both species shall be provisionally referred to as “Hyracotherium levei (Hooker, 1994) and “Hyracotherium remyi (Checa-Soler, 1997), pending new discoveries.
     
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol 41-1 (2018)

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S.I. Data
The eosimiid and amphipithecid primates (Anthropoidea) from the Oligocene of the Bugti hills (Balochistan, Pakistan): new insight into early higher primate evolution in South Asia.
Laurent Marivaux
Keywords: Amphipithecidae; anthropoid phylogney; Bugti Hills; Early Oligocene; Eosimiidae; Pakistan
 
  Abstract

    Eosimiid and amphipithecid primates document a long and significant history of primate evolution throughout the Eocene in Southeast Asia. Despite the absence of a comprehensive post-Eocene fossil record, it was generally hypothesized that both families left no descendant in Asia. Recently, two new small-bodied taxa, Bugtipithecus and Phileosimias, have been recovered in early Oligocene coastal deposits from the Bugti Hills (Balochistan, central Pakistan) and referred to the families Amphipithecidae and Eosimiidae, respectively, on the basis of dental fossil remains. In this paper, we provide more exhaustive description, comparison, and discussion of these taxa. As for tarsiid and sivaladapid primates, the persistence of eosimiids and amphipithecids into the Oligocene clearly demonstrates that low latitudes of South Asia provided a continuous access to tropical refugia during the climatic deterioration characterizing the late Eocene-early Oligocene interval, which was seemingly lethal for primate communities elsewhere across the Holarctic continents. As a contribution to the ongoing phylogenetic debates regarding the position of eosimiids and amphipithecids on the primate family tree, we have performed a cladistic analysis in a high-level primate systematic context in order to assess the position and the role of these new taxa in that phylogenetic issue. Our results support the view according to which eosimiids and amphipithecids (and by extension Phileosimias and Bugtipithecus, respectively) are stem anthropoids. These fossils from Pakistan document an unsuspected Oligocene phase of the evolutionary history of anthropoid primates in southern Asia, which clearly enhances the extent of the anthropoid radiation in this province during the Paleogene. Several phylogenetic and paleobiogeographic aspects are discussed, notably the intra- and inter-relationships between Paleogene Asian and Afro-Arabian anthropoids, and the resulting potential dispersal models between both land-masses during the Paleogene. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 34, Fasc. 1-2 (2006)

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Nouvelle quantification de l'Hypsodontie chez les Theridomyidae : l'exemple de Theridomys ludensis nov. sp.
Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Dental morphology; evolution; Hypsodonty; Oligocene; Theridomyidae
 
  Abstract

    A new example of parallelism in the dental pattern ofthe Theridomyidae is illustrated by the description ofa new species: Theridomys Iudensis from the standard level of Antoingt (middle Oligocene). Considering the occurence ofthis parallelism phenomenon. the use of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria is essential to characterize the different stages ofthe different evolutive lineages. Thus, a new simple parameter is proposed (CHY = H+l/0,5 L) to estimate hypsodonty of the medium hypsodont Rodentia. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (1985)

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Cricetid rodents from Siwalik deposits near Chinji village. Part I: Megacricetodontinae, Myocricetodontinae and Dendromurinae.
Everett H. Lindsay
Keywords: Dendromurinae; Megacricetodontinae; Middle Miocene; Myocricetodontinae; Rodents; Siwalik
 
  Abstract

    Seventeen species of cricetid rodent are recognized and described from lower and middle Siwalik deposits in the Potwar Plateau of Pakistan. These species are grouped in three categories, characterized as subfamilies (e. g., Megacricetodontinae, Myocricetodontinae, and Dendromurinae); an additional and more abundant category of rodents from these deposits, the Democricetodontinae, is excluded from this study, and will be described in a later study. Fifteen of the species are new, and four new genera are described. The Siwalik cricetid taxa are : Megacricetodon aquilari, n. sp.; Megacricetodon sivalensis, n. sp.; Megacricetodon daamsi, n. sp.; Megacricetodon mythikos, n. sp.; Punjabemys downsi, n. gen. & n. sp.; Punjabemys leptos, n. gen. & n. sp.; Punjabemys mikros, n. gen. & n. sp.; Myocricetodon sivalensis, n. sp.;  Myocricetodon sp.; Dakkamyoides lavocati, n. gen. & n. sp.; Dakkamyoides perplexus, n. gen. & n. sp.; Dakkamys asiaticus, n. sp.; Dakkamys barryi, n. sp.; Dakkamys sp.; Paradakkamys chinjiensis, n. gen. & n. sp.; Potwarmus primitivus, n. gen.; and Potwarmus minimus, n. gen. & n. sp. This diverse record of middle Miocene small mammals illuminates a profound radiation of cricetid rodents in southem Asia, the effects of which were felt in Europe and Africa as well as the rest of Asia. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Fasc. 2 (1988)

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