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Experimental taphonomy inavian eggs and eggshells: effects on early diagenesis.
Ana M. Bravo, D. A. Buscalioni, Lauro Merino and B. G. Müller
Keywords: archosaurian eggshells; avian egg; Experimental taphonomy; geochemical analysis; pyritisation; Upper Cretaceous
 
  Abstract

    We experimentally explore the early taphonomic stages involving the decay and biodegradation of buried eggs and eggshells. Unfertilised commercial chicken eggs and eggshell fragments were buried in plastic containers and were kept under controlled conditions for eight months. Half of the containers were filled with marl, and the remainder with sand. All were saturated with fresh tap water, acidified water, sulphate water, or seawater. They were kept in the dark at 23.4-26 °C, except one, which was kept in a heating chamber at 37.4°C. We expected that different burial conditions would produce distinct taphonomic outcomes. Instead, the taphonomic alterations of buried eggs parallel that of the alteration of egg proteins (i.e., denaturation and/or putrefaction) with an additional role played by the eggshell. Mummification, encrustation, distortion and fragmentation, and necrokynesis (vertical displacement) depend on organic matter decay. The experiment identifies environmental conditions that may favour or actively promote these taphonomic processes. Of these, early pyritization is one of the most relevant. For comparative purposes, samples of fossil and extinct eggshell representing three distinct environmental burial conditions were examined. These included Megaloolithus, Caiman crocodilus, and Struthio camelus ootypes. The geochemical analysis of these eggshells showed no significant differences among the chemical variables of these fossil and extant ootypes. Eggshells exhibited a stable composition over a range of experimental conditions. 
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 32, Fasc. 2-4 (2003)

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The Late Cretaceous nesting site of Auca Mahuevo (Patagonia, Argentina): eggs, nests, and embryos of titanosaurian sauropods.
Luis M. Chiappe, Rodolpho. . Coria, Frankie D. Jackson and Lowell Dingus
Keywords: Argentina; Eggs; embryos; Late Cretaceous; nests; Patagonia; titanosaurian sauropods
 
  Abstract

    The late Cretaceous Auca Mahuevo nesting site (Neuquén Province, Argentina) has produced a large number of sauropod eggs, many of them containing the remains of embryos. Research at this site has generated important information about the development of the embryos, the morphology and eggshell microstructure of the eggs, and the reproductive behavior of sauropod dinosaurs. Cranial features present in the embryos have allowed their identification as those of titanosaurian sauropods. Differences in the texture of the sediments that contain some of the egg-clutches have illuminated their nest architecture. Microstructural studies of eggshells have expanded our knowledge of their variability and the incidence of pathologies within a reproductive titanosaurian population. Maps showing the spatial distribution of eggs and clutches. the stratigraphic distribution of the egg-beds, and the sedimentological context in which they are contained, have provided the basis for several inferences about the nesting behavior of these dinosaurs. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 32, Fasc. 2-4 (2003)

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Révision des Rhombodontidae (Neoselachii Batomorphii) des bassins à phosphate du Maroc
Abdelmajid Noubhani and Henri Cappetta
Keywords: Batomorphii; Maastrichtian; Morocco; New taxa; Phosphate; Rbombodontidae
 
  Abstract

    The revision of the Rhombodontidae from the Maastrichtian of Morocco led us to the description of a new species: Rhombodus andriesi.

    The biometrical study of populations of R. binkhorsti and R. microdon, species sometimes considered as synonymous, supports the conclusion that they represent two distinct species and not young and adult specimens of a single species. The stratigraphical range of these two species confirms this
    result.

    The reexarnination of type-series studied by C. Ararnbourg led us to revise the generic status of Rhombodus bondoni which is now ranged, because his dental features, in the new genus Dasyrhombodus showing a less derived dentition than Rhombodus. The stratigraphical range of each species is clarified within the phosphatic series. 


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Published in Vol. 23, Fasc. 1-4 (1994)

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Une faune du niveau d'Egerkinger (MP 14; Bartonien inférieur) dans les phosphorites du Quercy (Sud de la France)
Jean Sudre, Bernard Sigé, Jean-Albert Remy, Bernard Marandat, Jean-Louis Hartenberger, Marc Godinot and Jean-Yves Crochet
Keywords: Biochronology; Early Bartonian; Eocene; evolution; Mammals; New taxa; Quercy
 
  Abstract

    The Laprade fauna is chronologically situated between those from Egerkingen and Lissieu and consequently, is close to the MP 14 reference-level of the European mammalian biochronological scale (Symposium of Mainz, 1987).
    This new fauna is presently the oldest known in the Quercy phosphorites, formerly the Le Bretou fauna (MP 16) was considered as the oldest one. The Laprade fauna includes 21 species which belong in 7 mammalian orders (Marsupialia: Amphiperatherium bastbergense, Amphiperatherium goethei; Apatotheria: Heterohyus (Gervaisyus) pygmaeus nov. subgen., nov. sp.; Lipotyphla: Saturninia cf. mamertensis, Saturninia cf. intermedia; Chiroptera: Vespertiliavus lapradei nov. sp.; Rodentia: Protadelomys cf. lugdunensis, Elfomys nov. sp.; Primates: Nannopithex cf. filholi, cf. Pseudoloris or Pivetonia; Perissodactyla: ?Palaeotherium ?castrense, small-sized Palaeotherium sp., Plagiolophus sp., Anchilophus sp.; Artiodactyla: Dichobune cf. robertiana, Mouillacitherium cartieri, Tapirulus cf. depereti, Mixtotherium priscum, Pseudamphimeryx schlosseri, and Artiodactyla indet). Sixteen of these species are mentioned for the first time from the Quercy faunas.
    The recognition of a new apatemyid, Heterohyus (Gervaisyus) pygmaeus nov. subgen., nov. sp., attests to an early origin of a lineage known in the Late Eocene. The emballonurid bat Vespertiliavus lapradei nov. sp. is presently the earliest record of this genus and family. This Auversian fauna leads to discuss the age of taxa showing archaic features. These taxa were defined on specimens collected in the Quercy during the last century and have never been found in the Quercy localities recently investigated. This fauna bears also evidence of a karstic filling episode older than those previously dated by fossils in the Quercy Jurassic. 


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Published in Vol. 20, Fasc. 1 (1990)

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On the genus Dikkomys (Geomyoidea, Mammalia)
Morton Green and Philip R. Bjork
Keywords: Dikkomys; Geomyoidae; North America
 
  Abstract

    The geomyoid genus Dikkomys is well represented in a sample from the Black Bear Quarry Il local fauna of Early Hemingfordian age in Bennett County, South Dakota. Isolated unworn P/4's of Dikkomys matthewi WOOD have a prominent median cristid (sagicristid) with a connection to the metaconid and the hypolophid. With wear, P/4 does not become as molariform as P/4 because of this cristid.
    A large sample of the Whitneyan beteromyid Proheteromys nebraskensis WOOD contains variants of the P/4 with on incipient sagicristid in approximately 18 percent of the population. The upper dentition and lower molars of Proheteromys nebraskensis are sufficiently generalized to indicate probable ancestry to Dikkomys


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Published in Vol. 9, Ext (1980)

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A new Desmodillus (Gerbillinae, Rodentia) species from the early Pliocene site of Langebaanweg (South-western Cape, South Africa)
 
Christiane Denys and Thalassa Matthews
Keywords: Lower Pliocene; Muridae; Rodentia; RSA

doi: 10.18563/pv.41.1.e1
 
  Abstract

    Situated in the Cape region of the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the paleontological site of Langebaanweg is dated to 5.1 Myr and is famous for having yielded an abundant vertebrate assemblage, including numerous rodent species from the Mio-Pliocene transition. Based on molar morphology and skull anatomy, the single Gerbillinae taxon identified at Langebaanweg and described in this paper is allocated to Desmodillus, which is a modern monotypic South African endemic genus. It is significant in being the oldest representative of the genus in Africa. We describe here a new species of this genus which is larger than the modern D. auricularis, but nevertheless retains some of its main characteristics, namely the shape of the maxilla and mandible, the presence of poorly fused alternating cusps, and no longitudinal crest. This taxon differs from modern South African Gerbilliscus representatives in some mandibular and maxillary characters, in the m1 prelobe cusp, and in having less fused cusps. Two fossil Gerbillinae discovered in the Upper Miocene of Africa and Asia, Abudhabia and Protatera, have been compared with the new species. We discuss their relationships with modern and Plio-pleistocene Gerbillinae and conclude that Abudhabia could be the sister taxon of Desmodillus and that around 6-5 Myr a vicariance event allowed Gerbillinae to diversify into modern Desmodillus in South Africa, and Gerbilliscus in East Africa. The murine/gerbilline ratio, which is a good indicator of rainfall, supports other proxies which suggest that at 5.1 Myr the climate in the Langebaanweg region was more humid than today. 


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Published in Vol 41-1 (2018)

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Les rongeurs de Chéry-Chartreuve et Rocourt-Saint-Martin (est du bassin de Paris; Aisne, France). Leur place parmi les faunes de l'Eocène Moyen d'Europe
Bernard Comte, Maurice Sabatier and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Biochronology; evolution; Middle Eocene; Paris basin; Rodents; Systematics

doi: 10.18563/pv.37.4-5.167-271
 
  Abstract

    This paper is mainly devoted to the systematics of rodents from two middle Eocene (Bartonian) localities: Chéry-Chartreuve and Rocourt-Saint-Martin (Aisne, Eastern Paris Basin). These two localities are stratigraphically located slightly above the Auversian sands. The two faunas, which comprise 11 and 8 taxa, respectively, are very different in their composition. That of Rocourt-Saint-Martin shows strong similarities with that of the geographically very close locality of Grisolles, referred to the MP16 mammalian Reference level. The very distinct fauna of Chéry-Chartreuve includes a new species of Ailuravinae, Ailuravus nov.sp, and some teeth of the theridomyid Protadelomys, which represent archaic elements in the fauna. The most abundant species of the locality represents a new genus of primitive Theridomyidae. The presence of some teeth belonging to a new species of large Remyinae, Remys nov. sp., of Elfomys engesseri HOOKER & WEIDMANN, and a population of small dimensions referred to the genus Estellomys allow a correlation with Les Alleveys (Switzerland), with however some differences that would indicate an older age for Chéry-Chartreuve. Situated at the base of the "Marinesian" from the Bassin de Paris, this fauna is unquestionably different from those referred to the MP16 reference level and could represent an older level for which the macrofauna remains very poorly known. Conversely, the comparison of rodents from La Livinière II with those present in MP16 faunas, especially those of Robiac (Gard), shows a great similarity between both localities. This casts doubts on whether to keep this La Livinière II faunule to define the current MP15 reference level, while the biostratigraphical position of Pontils 26 (Spain), previously referred to this level, is reconsidered. Chery Chartreuse could be a good candidate for a new definition of the MP15 reference level. 


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Published in Vol. 37, Fasc. 4-5 (2012)

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Eléments nouveaux sur l'évolution des genres Eucricetodon et Pseudocricetodon (Eucricetodontinae, Rodentia,Mammalia, de l'Oligocène d'Europe Occidentale.
Bernard Comte
Keywords: evolution; Occidental Europe; Oligocene; Rodentia; Systematics
 
  Abstract

    The review of material recently collected in the new localities from the “Phosphorites du Quercy", and different localities from the South of France, bring new informations on the genus Eucricetodon THALER. 1966, and Pseudocricetodon  THALER,  I969 (Middle and Upper Oligocene. Western Europe). Thanks to Eucricetodon huerzeleri VIANEY-LIAUD, 1972, which were unsufficiently known until now, is proposed. During the middle Oligocene Eucricetodon atavus  MISONNE, 1957 seems to give rise to two lineages. One of them led to Eucricetodon huberi,which however exhibits a larger size and a development of progressive characters on the teeth. The other would be Eucricetodon huerzeleri well differentiated at the “Mas de Pauffié" standard level (beginning of the upper Oligocene). The ornementation of lower incisors is described, when possible. Though the fossils are not abundant, it seems that the ancestral lineage, Eucriretodon atavus, remains in  the upper Oligocene (Boningen standard level). evolving into Eucricetodon praecursor SCHAUB, 1925 (Rickenbach standard level). The characters of Eucricetodon dubius  (SCHAUB. 1925), represented by a numerous population in Pech Desse and Pech du Fraysse (Quercy). confirm that this species and Eucricetodon praecursor  belong to two different lineages. As Eucricetodon dubius shows more primitive features, this species could not originale from Eucricetodon atavus -Eucricetodon huberi. The appearance of this species at the level of Mas de Pauffié could be the result of an immigration. A new definition of Pseudocricetodon incertus (SCHLOSSER. 1884) is given. This species has been found in several localities, where it had not been identified until now. lts comparison with Pseudocricetodon moguntiacus  (BAHLO. l975), found at several localities from the standard level of Antoingt (end of middle Oligocene). shows a parallel evolution to that of Pseudocetodon incertus, which is  of larger size and with a less complicated pattern of teeth. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 15, Fasc. 1 (1985)

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Agriotherium intermedium (Stach 1957) from a Pliocene fissure filling of Xiaoxian County (Anhuei Province, China) and the phylogenetic position of the genus.
Zhanxiang Qiu and Norbert Schmidt-Kittler
Keywords: Carnivora; China; PHYLOGENY; Pliocene; skull anatomy; Ursidae
 
  Abstract

    A fragmentary mandible and maxilla of a small sized Agriotherium of a young individual discovered from a Pliocene fissure filling in Xiaoxian county (Anhuei Province, China) are described. Judging from the morphology of the dentition and its dimensions the new material can be identified as Agriotherium inlermedium (STACH l957). Hendey's proposition (1980) that the Agriotherium species are derived from Indarctos is reconsídered on the basis of the new documents. As a result of a more general phylogenetic discussion it can be stated, that: 1. the supposed size increase as well as other trends, leading from Indarctos to Agriotherium are untenable ; 2. there are no positive indications to assume a phylogenetic transition of these two genera. 3. there are no real arguments in favor of an adaptational reversal in the evolution of Agriotherium. Hence, many features of that genus supposed by Hendey to be derived are plesiomorphic ; 4. regardless of the previous points it is methodologícally impossible to establish direct ancestor - descendant relationships between Indarctos and Agriotherium species, as Hendey did. Based on the data available and especially on the characters of the new material from China it is more likely that Agriotherium and Indarctos are two genera which developed independently. While advanced Agriotherium species, e.g. A. africanum, resemble in some respects Indarctos by adaptational analogies, more primitive species, e.g. Agriotherium intermedium, are quite dissimilar to lndarctos. While Indarctos might be derived from an Ursavus like forerunner, Agriotherium has its roots more likely somewhere in between Ursavus and the Hemicyon-group. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 13, Fasc. 3 (1983)

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Les mammifères Montiens de Hainin (Paléocène moyen de Belgique) Part1: Multituberculés.
Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Belgium; Hainin; Mammals; multituberculates; Paleocene
 
  Abstract

    The Montian locality of Hainin (Hainaut, Belgium) yielded about twenty teeth of Multituberculates. They are very peculiar forms, showing no affinities, at the generic level, with those hitherto known from North America, Asia and Europe. They are referred to the new taxa Boffius splendidus nov. gen., nov. sp., Hainina belgica nov. gen., nov. sp., and H. godfriauxi nov. gen., nov. sp. They expose some common features, such as the advanced type of first upper molar. possessing at least three complete rows of cusps. Because of this, and also of the upper premolar reduction, Boffius splendidus appears as the most specialized form within the Ptilodontoidea suborder.
    Several other characters of Hainina seem to be less advanced, such as the great number of upper premolars and the simple cusp-formula of the first lower molar.
    Till now, only H. godfriauxi has been recovered within the Thanetian fauna from Cemay-les-Reims, where it is very poorly documented. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 09, Fasc. 4 (1979)

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Rongeurs du Miocène inférieur et moyen en Languedoc. Leur apport pour les correlations Marin-Continental et la Stratigraphie.
Jean-Pierre Aguilar
Keywords: Languedoc; Miocene; Rodents; Southern France
 
  Abstract

    The rodents (Cricetidae, Gliridae, Sciuridae) found in lacustrine, brackish marine and karstic sediments of Miocene age in Languedoc, assign the position of the different localities in the scale of "niveaux repères" used by mammalogists. Some detailed stratigraphical studies bring several correlations between this continental biochronological scale and the marine scale ; the most important results are the Aquitanian age of the "niveaux repères" of Coderet and Paulhiac, the Burdigalian age of Laugnac, Estrepouy, Vieux-Collonges, La Romieu and Sansan and the Langhian or Lower Serravallian age of La Grive M. The correlations between the Tethys and the Central Paratethys for the Lower Neogene profit also of these results, since the locality of Neudorf Spalte 1, 2 (Czechoslovakia) is shown to be younger than Sansan (France). The paleontological study has also several geological inferences for the Miocene of Languedoc ; with the calibration of this Miocene, we know quite precisely that the Lower Miocene is chiefly a time lacustrine sedimentation, and also that the marine Miocene sedimentation ends early in the Miocene Period, in Langhian or lower Serravallian times. 


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Published in Vol. 09, Fasc. 6 (1980)

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The new Algerian locality of Bir el Ater 3: validity of Libycosaurus algeriensis (Mammalia, Hippopotamoidea) and the age of the Nementcha Formation
Fabrice Lihoreau, Lionel Hautier and Mahammed Mahboubi
Keywords: Dispersal event; Miocene; North Africa; Tetralophodon

doi: 10.18563/pv.39.2.e1
 
  Abstract

    The description of original material of anthracothere and proboscidean in the new locality of Bir el Ater 3 from East Algeria, and a thorough review of early Libycosaurus remains of Bir el Ater 2 allows us validating L. algeriensis as the smallest and earliest species of Libycosaurus and probably the earliest migrant of the genus from Asia. The presence of a Tetralophodon in the Neogene Nementcha formation might represent the earliest occurrence of the genus in Africa. These original fossil remains allow us to discuss the age of the Neogene part of the Nementcha formation close to the Serravalian/Tortonian boundary. 


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Published in Vol.39-2 (2015)

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Cervus elaphus rossii (Mammalia, Artiodactyla), a new endemic sub-species from the Middle Pleistocene of Corsica
Elisabeth Pereira
Keywords: Cervus elaphus; Corsica; Endemism; Pleistocene
 
  Abstract

    Several endemic deer remains from the Middle Pleistocene deposits of the Castiglione cave (Oletta, Haute-Corse) are examined here. A morphometric analysis allows to relate them to a new insular subspecies Cervus elaphus rossii. The bones were compared with those of the mainland early Middle Pleistocene subspecies Cervus elaphus acoronatus Beninde and the European species Cervus elaphus Linné (Late Middle Pleistocene and Upper Pleistocene forms (continental and insular)). The Castiglione fossil shows peculiar morphofunctional features in its appendicular skeleton suggesting a morphological convergence with certain Bovidae. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 30, Fasc. 3-4 (2001)

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Preliminary evolution of paleosols and implications for interpreting vertebrate fossil assemblages, Kuldana formation, Northern Pakistan
Andres Aslan and J. G. M. Thewissen
Keywords: Eocene; Kuldana Formation; Pakistan; Paleosols; Pedogenic Carbonate; taphonomy; Time Averaging; Vertebrate Fossils
 
  Abstract

    Paleosols and the taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the Eocene Kuldana Formation of northern Pakistan provide important information on the preservation and time-averaging of fossil assemblages. Morphologic, mineralogic, and chemical data as well as comparisons with Quaternary soils suggest that Kuldana paleosols formed under generally dry and oxidizing conditions over time intervals of less than 100 000 years and perhaps as short as 1000 years. The distribution of carbonate in Kuldana paleosols further indicates that the upper half of the profiles were acidic whereas the lower halves were alkaline. Vertebrate fossils are rare in Kuldana paleosols and occur primarily in well-cemented sandstones and conglomerates with abundant micritic and iron-stained nodules that were reworked from floodplain soils. The scarcity of vertebrate remains in Kuldana paleosols probably reflects a combination of acidic, dry, and oxidizing conditions in the upper half of the profiles and rapid floodplain sedimentation. Comparisons between the taphonomic characteristics of Kuldana channel fossil assemblages and bone accumulations in modem rivers provide a basis for estimating the length of time represented by Kuldana fossils from several important localities. Vertebrate fossil assemblages from Barbora Banda are characterized by a low-diversity paleofauna, partially articulated skeletons, and bones that are sorted by size and shape. Comparison with bone accumulations in modern rivers suggests that the fossils from Barbora Banda accumulated in 1 to 10 years. Vertebrate fossils from the Lower Kuldana in the Kala Chitta Hills region, typified by locality H-GSP 62, are characterized by a high-diversity paleofauna and generally random and unsorted fossil bone distributions, which suggest that the fossils from these localities represent longer time intervals than the Barbora Banda fossils. Based on the time estimates for Kuldana paleosol development, fossil assemblages in Kuldana channel deposits in the Kala Chitta Hills region probably represent time intervals of about 1000 years. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Le genre Leptolophus (Perissodactyla, Mammalia): morphologie et histologie dentaires, anatomie cranienne, implications fonctionnelles.
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: dental histology; Eocene; functional anatomy; Palaeotheriidae; skull anatomy; Southern France; Systematics
 
  Abstract

    A strong lophodonty, an extreme heterodonty, some hypsodonty and regular overlayings of coronal cement are prominent features of the genus Leptolophus (Palaeotheriinae = Palaeotheriidae s.s.). The histological pattern of the teeth unusually joins type II enamel prisms, characteristic of advanced ungulates, together with archaic features, such as an almost complete lack of Hunter-Schreger zonation and a weak expanse of peritubular dentine. The skull is narrow and slender, with an elongated ante-orbital facial region, a moderately notched nasal aperture, a rather elongated post-canine diastem, parallel zygornatic arches and a fairly dorsally located squamoso-mandibular joint.The functional analysis brings to light "ectolophodont" masticatory cycles with two phases, in which maximum power was applied, contrary to equíds, on hindmost teeth; likewise, skull accomodations to increasing height of the teeth are quite different. This study leads to the assumption that Leptolophus may have been light mammals, living in rather open surroundings, browsing on herbaceous plants or leaves cropped close to the ground. Moreover, it appears that it could have been some inadequacy of dental structures to the dietary, which leaded to quick wear of the teeth and to many enamel notches, but had been somewhat balanced by the early increase of hypsodonty, not induced in such a case by a biotop deterioration (as it will happen at the end of the Eocene). This ínadaptation might account for the short duration of the genus Leptolophus, whose the 3 species, L. stehlini, L. nouletí and L. magnus n. sp. are indeed confined in the level MP 16. Its geographical spreading (as far as known, South of western Europe) and the morphological pattern of its dentition suggest that this genus would have been related to early upper Eocene endemic spanish forms.





      


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Published in Vol. 27, Fasc. 1-2 (1998)

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Revision der Equoidea aus den Eozänen Braunkohlen des Geiseltales bel Halle (DDR).
Jens L. Franzen and Hartmut Haubold
Keywords: Eocene; Europe; Mammalia; Perissodactyla; Stratigraphy; taxonomy
 
  Abstract

    The dentitions as well as one complete and several partial skeletons of Equoids from the Eocene lignite beds of the Geiseltal locality are revised. Instead of 13 species distinguished up to now 3 chronoclines with 5 species and 3 separate species are recognized (text. fig. 1). Propalaeotherium hassiacum HAUPT, 1925 is evolving into Propalaeotherium isselanum (CUVIER, 1824) between the levels of the « obere Unterkohle ›› and the « untere Mittelkohle ›› of the Geiseltal section. Propalaeotherium argentonicum GERVAIS, 1849 is shown to be present in the « untere Unterkohle ››, whereas Lophiotherium pygmaeum (DEPERET,1901) occurs in the « obere Mittelkohle ›› and in the « oberes Hauptmittel ››. Plagiolophus cartieri STEHLIN, 1904 appears during the transition from the « Mittelkohle ›› into the « Oberkohle ›› as the earliest true Palaeothere. Therefore the « Oberkohle ›› is already regarded as Upper Eocene. This is corroborated by the occurrence of a phyletic descendant of Propalaeatherium parvulum (Propalaeotherium n.sp.) in the middle and upper "Oberkohle " because this species appears otherwise for the first time at the mammal level of Lissieu. On the other hand Propachynolophus gaudryz (LEMOINE, 1878) described by Matthes (1977) from the « untere Unterkohle ›› turns out te be in fact a Phenacodont. Thus the decisive argument for classifying the « untere Unterkohle ›› as Lower Eocene has to be dropped. Biostratigraphically the « Unterkohle ›› and the «Basishauptrnittel ›› correspond with the lower Middle Eocene (mammal level of Messel), whereas the «unteres Hauptmittel ›› and the « untere Mittelkohle ›› are equivalent to the middle part of the middle Eocene (mammal level of lssel), and the « obere Mittelkohle ›› together with the « oberes Hauptmittel ›› coincide with the upper Middle Eocene (mammal level of Bouxwiller). 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 1 (1986)

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Equus caballus antunesi, nouvelle sous-espèce Quaternaire du Portugal
Joao L. Cardoso and Véra Eisenmann
Keywords: Equidae; Equus caballus; new subspecies; Perissodactyla; Portugal; Würm
 
  Abstract

    Equus caballus antunesi, nova subspecies, was a hypsodont, slender, and rather small horse (around 141cm at the withers), with narrow hooves and protocones longer on P3/-P4/ than on M1/-M2/. It does not fit in any of the different "types" of Pleistocene caballine horses previously recognized but may be related to the horse from the Acheulean of Solana del Zamborino.
    Hypsodonty, small size, slenderness, narrow hooves are all characters that can easily be related to ecological conditions. Equus caballus antunesi was probably a horse adapted to rather dry and cold conditions and to a hard ground. It does not seem related at all to the North-European Equus caballus germanicus-gallicus group. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 2 (1989)

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A new species of Propalaeotherium (Palaeotheriidae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Middle Eocene locality of Aumelas (Hérault, France).
Jean-Albert Remy, Gabriel Krasovec and Bernard Marandat
Keywords: Eocene; new species; Palaeotheriidae; Propalaeotherium

doi: 10.18563/pv.40.2.e1
 
  Abstract

    A new Propalaeotherium species, clearly distinct from the genus Eurohippus, is described. It is characterized by having a similar size as P. voigti from the German Geiseltal localities (MP 11 to MP 13 reference-level), but differs in several features suggesting a slighty more derived morphology. It presents indeed less brachyodont crowns with less prominent and less elevated cingula, slightly larger relative surface of premolars, and a more marked metaconid splitting on cheek teeth. This new species is unknown from other European localities except the nearby Saint-Martin de Londres locality which has been considered older than the MP 13 level. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol.40-2 (2016)

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Les gisements de Robiac (Eocène supérieur) et leurs faunes de Mammifères.
Jean Sudre
Keywords: Fauna; Late Eocene; Mammalia; Robiac

doi: 10.18563/pv.2.3.95-156
 
  Abstract

    Designated the type-locality of a late Eocene paleomammal zone, Robiac has recently been the object of important excavations. The first results of the new collecting, as  well as a revision of the material in old collections, are given in this work.
    Two stratigraphic section, cutting through the two sites presently distinguished (Robiac-Nord and Robiac-Sud) reveal the lithologic variation at the base of the Fons Limestone and the localization of three fossiliferous beds at Robiac-Sud.
    The molluscan fauna and the flora (charophytes), which have already been described, as well as that of the lower vertebrates, have been listed.
    A list of 46 mammalian species (only 16 species were known previous to 1964) has been established. The micro-mammals, nearly all new in this fauna (marsupials, insectivores, bats, rodents, primates, and some smallsized artiodactyls), Were obtained only after screen-washing of the matrix; about 4 tons of sediment were thus treated.
    The artiodactyls have been the most extensively analyzed; 6 genera, of which one is new, have been recognized. The latter is described as Robiacina minum n.g., n.sp., and represents a very small artiodactyl of the family Anoplotheriidae. The taxonomie status of certain species formerly described has been clarified by the designation of lectotypes (Cebochoerus robiucensis, Catodonerium robiacense, Xiphodon castrense).
    The paleontologic corrélations at present possible between the late Eocene faunas have allowed the relative positions of te different French localities of this age to be established; the Guépelle locality, it seems, could define in the future a new paleomammal zone.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 02, Fasc. 3 (1969)

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Multituberculate endocranial casts
Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska
Keywords: Allotheria; Cretaceous; endocranial cast; Mongolia; multituberculates
 
  Abstract

    A reconstruction of a multituberculate endocranial cast is made on the basis of a complete natural cast prepared from the skull of Chulsanbaatar vulgaris, and other less complete endocasts, all from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. The multituberculate endocast is of mammalian pattern but it has retained a therapsid-like lateral profile with a deep rhombencephalon and a shallow telencephalon. It is characterized by: a heart-shaped cross-section of the telencephalon; an extensive lissencephalic neocortex; a very prominent pons placed far anteriorly; a lack of cerebellar hemispheres, and very large paraflocculi. Its structure, very different from the brains of other mammals, suggests thats the Multituberculata branched very early from the main mammalian stock. This supports Simpson's (1945) idea that the Multituberculata should be placed in a subclass of their own: Allotheria MARSH. The endocast and braincase structure show that the Multituberculata had strongly developed senses of smell and hearing. The encephalization quotient of approx. 0.55 evaluated for Ch. vulgaris is relatively high for a Mesozoic mammal. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 13, Fasc. 1-2 (1983)

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