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Autopsie d’une radiation adaptative : Phylogénie des Theridomorpha, rongeurs endémiques du Paléogène d’Europe - histoire, dynamique évolutive et intérêt biochronologique
Monique Vianey-Liaud and Laurent Marivaux
Keywords: Diversification; Extinction; Paléoenvironnements; Rodentia; Theridomyoidea

doi: 10.18563/pv.40.3.e1
 
  Abstract

    Résumé :
    L’étude des rongeurs Theridomorpha permet de suivre le déroulement d’une radiation adaptative pendant toute sa durée (Eocène moyen-Oligocène terminal), sur un territoire restreint à l’extrémité ouest de l’Europe Occidentale. Dans ce papier, la phylogénie de ce groupe est établie à partir d’une analyse cladistique reposant sur l’examen de 315 caractères (310 dentaires). Le groupe d’intérêt comprend 110 des 132 espèces (24 genres) de Theridomyoidea et deux genres encore inclus jusqu’ici dans les Reithroparamyinae qui rejoignent les Theridomorpha. Les groupes externes comprennent des Glires basaux, Cocomys, Tanquammys et 16 Ischyromyiformes. Un cadre phylogénétique robuste est produit, qui permet de clarifier la systématique des Theridomorpha. La position des Remyoidea (nov. sup.fam.) au sein des Ischyromyiformes, extérieure aux Theridomorpha, est confortée. Les Protadelomys et Tardenomys sont à la base des Theridomyoidea, avant la séparation en deux clades correspondant aux familles Pseudosciuridae et Theridomyidae. Les sous-familles sont consolidées : Pseudosciurinae et Sciuroidinae pour les Pseudosciuridae ; Issiodoromyinae, Oltinomyinae, Columbomyinae, Theridomyinae, auxquelles s’ajoute au moins une nouvelle sous-famille (Patriotheridomyinae), pour les Theridomyidae. La topologie des chrono-espèces (sensu Simpson), traitées antérieurement comme lignées évolutives, apparaît dans la plupart des cas sous forme de clades successifs dans lesquels les espèces sont le plus souvent arrangées de manière pectinée, émergeant dans l’ordre stratigraphique. L’analyse des caractères aux principaux nœuds permet de consolider les caractères diagnostiques des taxons et les tendances évolutives, ainsi que de discuter des divers parallélismes et convergences dans l’évolution des structures et patrons dentaires (e.g., émail des incisives unisérié chez les Issiodoromyinae et les Patriotheridomyinae, ou pseudo-multisérié chez les Blainvillimys les plus hypsodontes, les Protechimys et Archaeomys ; patrons dentaires téniodontes ; allongement des dents déciduales chez les Patriotheridomyinae, Issiodoromyinae et Theridomyidae ; sélénodontie ou lophodontie). Les dynamiques évolutives traduites par les changements morphologiques sont mises en relation avec les variations environnementales. Enfin, les implications biochronologiques de l’évolution des Theridomyoidea sont discutées.
    Abstract:
    The adaptive radiation of the rodents Theridomorpha occurred during a limited time window (middle Eocene to late Oligocene), on an area restricted to Western Europe. In this paper, the phylogeny of this group is established via a cladistic assessment of 315 morphological characters (310 dental). The group of interest encompasses 110 upon 132 species (24 genera) of Theridomyoidea, and two genera formerly included within the Reithroparamyinae, and which are included here within the Theridomorpha. The outgroups include basal Glires, Cocomys, Tanquammys and 16 Ischyromyiformes. A robust phylogenetic frame is produced, which allows clarifying the systematics of the Theridomorpha. Within the Ischyromyiformes, the Remyoidea (nov. supfam.) are set apart from the Theridomorpha. Protadelomys and Tardenomys represent the earliest offshoots of the Theridomyoidea, before the dichotomy between Pseudosciuridae and Theridomyidae. It supports the former subfamilies Pseudosciurinae and Sciuroidinae within the Pseudosciuridae; and for the Theridomyidae: the Issiodoromyinae, Oltinomyinae, Columbomyinae, Theridomyinae, with at least one new subfamily (Patriotheridomyinae). The topologies of the chronospecies (sensu Simpson), formerly considered as evolutionary lineages, appear in most cases as successive clades, in which the species are generally pectinately arranged and emerging in the stratigraphic order. The analysis of characters supporting the main nodes allow consolidating the diagnosic characters of the taxa and their evolutionary trends, as well as discussing the various cases of parallelism and convergence in the evolution of structures and dental patterns (e.g., uniserial incisor enamel for Issiodoromyinae and Patriotheridomyinae, or pseudo-multiserial for the most hypsodont Blainvillimys, Protechimys and Archaeomys; taeniodont dental patterns; lengthening of deciduous premolars for Patriotheridomyinae, Issiodoromyinae and Theridomyidae; selenodonty or lophodonty).
    Evolutionary dynamics are analysed with respect to environmental changes. Finally, biochronological implications of the evolution of Theridomyoidea are discussed.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol 40-3 (2016)

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S.I. Data
An Australian Miocene Brachipposideros (Mammalia, Chiroptera) related to Miocene representatives from France
Bernard Sigé, Suzanne J. Hand and Michael Archer
Keywords: Australia; bats; Chiroptera; Miocene
 
  Abstract

    A new middle Miocene hipposiderid bat is described from a limestone deposit on Riversleigh Station in north-western Queensland. Hipposideros (Brachipposideros) nooraleebus n. sp. is the first record of this subgenus from anywhere in the world outside of France. The palaeoecological setting of the fossil bats appears to have been a relatively quiet, sunny lime-enriched tropical pool that contained tortoises, crocodiles and fish. It is possible that the bats were washed into the pool from an adjacent cave.
    The Riversleigh bat most closely resembles the French Burdigalian (early middle Miocene) bat H. (B.) aguilari. It is also possible that it may have been closely related to the original Australian hipposiderid stock that ultimately gave rise to the endemic monotÿpic Rhinonycteris aurantius. The disjunct distribution of species of H. (Brachipposideros) suggests that representatives of this subgenus will be found in at least tropical southern Asia. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 12, Fasc. 5 (1982)

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Evolution des Aplodontidae Oligocènes Européens
Norbert Schmidt-Kittler and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Aplodontidae; Europe; Oligocene
 
  Abstract

    Until now Aplodontidae of the European Oligocene have been documented by four species only. The phylogenetic relations remained obscure. as the distribution of only one species has been known in some detail. New material made it possible to define the stratigraphic range of two of the already existing species (Plesispermophilus angustidens, Sciurodon cadurcense) and to follow their development during the Oligocene beginning with the event of the « Grande Coupure ››. Sciurodon remained nearly without change until the end of the Middle Oligocene. Plesispermophilus angustidens split into two distinct phyletic lines, one of which (P. macrodon n. sp.) reaching considerable size, is represented till the beginning of the Upper Oligocene (Pech de Fraysse, Gaimersheim). The other line leads to Plesispermophilus ernii (basal Upper Oligocene of Burgmagerbein 1. terminal Upper Oligocene of Coderet). Besides the already known forms a new small-sized species (P. atavus n. sp.) is described, which by its primitive features closely resembles the genus Plesispermophilus. Two other small-sized species already known from the Upper Oligocene (? P. argoviensis) and Lower Miocene (? P. descedens) seem to be closely related to the new species. It cannot be decided whether they are descendents of this line or have developed independently, because of their poor fossil record.
    Comparison of the evolutionary modalities in the different phylogenetic lines reveals general trends. the most striking of which is the complication of the tooth pattern by the development of additional crests. In the lower molars the cusps diminuate in size and are more and more transformed into ridges. ln addition new connection between the crests appear. in the upper molars, the « selenodont » shape of the teeth becomes more and more dominant, and in the two main evolutionary lines of Plesispermophilus the metaconulus becomes duplicated. A further evolutionary trend is the size increase of the premolars compared to the molars, which is even more pronounced in the Miocene Aplodontidae.
    Phylogenetic relations between the primitive Plesispermophilus and certain « prociurines ›› of Northern America as well as between Plesispermophilus (P. angustidens) and more progressive forms of the Upper Oligocene (P. ernii, P. macrodon n. sp.) can be documented. In this light, the taxonomic distinction between Prosciurinae (bunodont) and Allomyinae (selenodont) sensu Rensberger 1976 can be shown to be artificial, because it separates forms from each other, which are evidently closely related. Consequently the separation into two subfamilies has been abolished. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 09, Fasc. 2 (1979)

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Sur le remplissage des "poches à phosphorite" d'Aubrelong (commune de Bach, Lot)
Bernard Gèze
Keywords: Aubrelong; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    Abstract not available 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 1-2 (1974)

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Les Entélodontes des phosphorites du quercy
Michel Brunet
Keywords: Entelodontes; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    The entelodonts of the Quercy phosphorites are essentially known from isolated teeth. The skull remains attributed to Entelodon magnum by Kowalewsky in 1876 and the type left mandible of Enteladon depereti RÉPELIN, 1918 do not belong to this family. From a morphologic point of view, the teeth from Quercy are quite comparable to those from the type localities of E. magnum and E. deguilhemi. In the absence of distinctive anatomical criteria between E. magnum (small species from the level of Ronzon) and E. deguilhemi (large species from the level of Villebramar) they are referred, according to their size, to one or the other of these two species. However, some of them are intermediate in size. Their existence speaks in favor of a close relationship between E. magnum and E. deguilhemi and confers a real stratigraphic interest to these entelodonts of Western Europe. Finally, some anatomical characters (notch on the mesial border of P4, presence of a paraconid joined to the metaconid, trigonid higher than talonid) considered until now as peculiar to the North American Archaeotherium and not yet cited in its European contemporary Entelodon have been brought to light on the teeth from Quercy.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 1-2 (1974)

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Les insectivores des phosphorites du Quercy
Jean-Yves Crochet
Keywords: Insectivores; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    Many types of insectivores have been described from specimens found in the Quercy phosphorites. These remains very often were not dated because they came from old collections. Recent excavations have permitted the situation of Amphidozotherium cayluxi FILHOL in the late Eocene. Two new genera are descrlbed based on material both from the old collections (Cryplotopos nov. g.) and from that recently recovered (Darbonetus nov. g., beginning of the middle Oligocene). Their systematic positions are revised and comparisons with American faunas are made. Amphidozotherium is not a talpid, but an erinaceoid belonging to an indeterminate family. Saturninia gracilis STHELIN is classified among the Nyctitheriinae, Myxomygale antiqua FILHOL among the Urotrichini Talpinae, and the genus Geotypus POMEL among the Scaptonichini Talpinae. A new study of the talpids from Auvergne has been rendered necessary. During the late Eocene and Oligocene precise morphology relationships existed between certain insectivores of Europe and North America. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 1-2 (1974)

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Les serpents des phosphorites du Quercy
Jean-Claude Rage
Keywords: Grande Coupure; Quercy phosphorites; Serpents
 
  Abstract

    A short review of the genera and species of snakes from the Quercy's phosphorites described by former authors is followed by the study of specimens recently collected. Most of these latter specimens belong to the Aniliidae, Boidae, Colubridae and to the Scolecophidia; the precise systematic position of some of them is not defined yet. The following genera and species are described: Eonilius europae nov. gen. and nov. sp., Platyspondylia lepta nov. gen. and nov. sp., Coluber cadurci nov. sp. and Dunnophis cadurcensis nov.  sp.; a species described by de Rochebrune (Palaeopython filholi) is revised. One of the most important conclusions of this study is that the Colubridae appear as early as the Upper Eocene. The stratigraphic repartition of these snakes shows that the rich Upper Eocene fauna is followed by the very reduced fauna of the Lower Oligocene; then the oligocene «Grande Coupure» corresponds to a very important faunistic renewal. The fauna remains poor and little diversified during the beginning of the Middle Oligocene after which there is a new faunistic explosion. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 3-4 (1975)

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Saturnin Garimond (1914-1987)
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: biography
 
  Abstract

    Biographie et liste des publications de S. Garimond. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 17, Fasc. 3 (1987)

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Ostéologie de la tête de Richardus excavans Lavocat,1988
René Lavocat
Keywords: Africa; anatomy; Bathyergidae; Miocene; Rodents
 
  Abstract

    Remarkable association of a small infraorbital foramen, similar to that in recent Heterocephalus, and of a strong muscular print on the dorsal anterior part of the zygomatic plate and on the premaxillary. Several anatomical structures to be compared with those of Heterocephalus suggest relationships with this genus. Richardus supports the ancestrality of the hystricomorph character in the bathyergids 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 2 (1989)

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Les crocodiliens paléogenes du Tilemsi (Mali): un aperçu systématique
Eric Buffetaut
Keywords: Crocodilians; Dyrosoridae; Eocene; Mali; Palaeocene
 
  Abstract

    Abundant crocodilian fossil remains have been collected, mainly by R. Lavocat. from several levels of the
    Palaeogene of the Tilemsi valley (eastern Mali). Several dyrosaurids occur in the Palaeocene (Montian ?) : Phosphatosaurus sp., Hyposaurus bequaerti (Dollo). H. wilsoni (Swinton). H. nopesai (Swinton), Rhabdognathus rarus Swinton, R. compressus n. sp. ln the lower Eocene has been found a dyrosaurid which cannot be accurutely determined.In the middle Eocene were found a dyrosaurid, Tilemsisuchus lavocati n. g., n. sp., and an indeterminate eusuchian. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 9, Ext (1980)

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Functional aspects of the evolution of rodent molars
Percy M. Butler
Keywords: Chewing; Muridae; Rodents; Wear facets
 
  Abstract

    The wear facets of primitive rodents can be homologized with those of primitive primates and ungulates. As in primates, the jaw movement was ectental, with an increased anterior component in the lingual phase (phase ll). The buccal phase (phase I) in rodents approaches the horizontal and it tends to be reduced in importance in comparison with the lingual phase. ln more advanced rodents the efficiency of grinding is increased by the development of additional cutting edges of enamel (e.g. enlargement of hypocone, development of mesoloph and lingual sinus). The buccal phase movement becomes lined up with the lingual phase movement to form a single oblique chewing stroke,resulting in planation of the crown. As the stroke becomes more longitudinal (propalinal) the enamel edges become more transverse. In Muridae propalinal chewing evolved before the loss of cusps, facets were reorientated and additional cusps developed. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 9, Ext (1980)

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La poche à Phosphate de Ste-Néboule (Lot) et sa faune de vertébres du Ludien supérieur. 5-Squamates
Jean-Claude Rage
Keywords: Eocene; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    The Squamates from Sainte-Néboule are charateristic of the Upper Eocene from the Phosphorites du Quercy. Most genera known from this locality do not survive the « Grande Coupure ». Cadurcoboa insolita gen. nov., sp. nov. is a small Boidae very characteristic of the Upper Eocene. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 08, Fasc. 2-4 (1978)

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 La poche à phosphate de Ste-Néboule (Lot) et sa faune de vertébres du Ludien Supérieur. Introduction
Bernard Gèze, Jean-Claude Rage, Colette Vergnaud-Grazzini, France de Broin, Eric Buffetaut, Cécile Mourer-Chauviré, Jean-Yves Crochet, Bernard Sigé, Jean Sudre, Jean-Albert Remy, Brigitte Lange-Badré, Louis de Bonis, Jean-Louis Hartenberger and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Eocene; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    Le Quercy est aujourd 'hui un vaste plateau calcaire, parcouru par un réseau karstique actif, profondément
    entaillé par des vallées aux falaises abruptes, comme celles du Lot ou du Célé. Sur un sol peu épais domine la forêt de chênes, accompagnés de cornouillers, érables, genévriers. La faune est pauvre, peu diverse, et les nombreux chasseurs se satisfont de gibier d'élevage ...

    Il y a trente cinq millions d'années environ, le paysage était bien différent. La période de l'Eocène supérieur, qui s'achevait, avait été chaude et humide, si l'on se réfère à la fois aux paléotempératures (calculées à partir de sédiments marins extra·européens) et aux restes fossilisés de végétaux typiquement tropicaux. 


  View editorial

Published in Vol. 08, Fasc. 2-4 (1978)

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Les mammifères Montiens de Hainin (Paléocène moyen de Belgique) Part1: Multituberculés.
Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Belgium; Hainin; Mammals; multituberculates; Paleocene
 
  Abstract

    The Montian locality of Hainin (Hainaut, Belgium) yielded about twenty teeth of Multituberculates. They are very peculiar forms, showing no affinities, at the generic level, with those hitherto known from North America, Asia and Europe. They are referred to the new taxa Boffius splendidus nov. gen., nov. sp., Hainina belgica nov. gen., nov. sp., and H. godfriauxi nov. gen., nov. sp. They expose some common features, such as the advanced type of first upper molar. possessing at least three complete rows of cusps. Because of this, and also of the upper premolar reduction, Boffius splendidus appears as the most specialized form within the Ptilodontoidea suborder.
    Several other characters of Hainina seem to be less advanced, such as the great number of upper premolars and the simple cusp-formula of the first lower molar.
    Till now, only H. godfriauxi has been recovered within the Thanetian fauna from Cemay-les-Reims, where it is very poorly documented. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 09, Fasc. 4 (1979)

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Rongeurs du Miocène inférieur et moyen en Languedoc. Leur apport pour les correlations Marin-Continental et la Stratigraphie.
Jean-Pierre Aguilar
Keywords: Languedoc; Miocene; Rodents; Southern France
 
  Abstract

    The rodents (Cricetidae, Gliridae, Sciuridae) found in lacustrine, brackish marine and karstic sediments of Miocene age in Languedoc, assign the position of the different localities in the scale of "niveaux repères" used by mammalogists. Some detailed stratigraphical studies bring several correlations between this continental biochronological scale and the marine scale ; the most important results are the Aquitanian age of the "niveaux repères" of Coderet and Paulhiac, the Burdigalian age of Laugnac, Estrepouy, Vieux-Collonges, La Romieu and Sansan and the Langhian or Lower Serravallian age of La Grive M. The correlations between the Tethys and the Central Paratethys for the Lower Neogene profit also of these results, since the locality of Neudorf Spalte 1, 2 (Czechoslovakia) is shown to be younger than Sansan (France). The paleontological study has also several geological inferences for the Miocene of Languedoc ; with the calibration of this Miocene, we know quite precisely that the Lower Miocene is chiefly a time lacustrine sedimentation, and also that the marine Miocene sedimentation ends early in the Miocene Period, in Langhian or lower Serravallian times. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 09, Fasc. 6 (1980)

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Premières données sur les carnivores fissipèdes provenant des fouilles récentes dans le Quercy
Louis de Bonis
Keywords: Carnivores; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    Abstract not available 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 1-2 (1974)

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La poche à phosphate de Sainte-Néboule (Lot) et sa faune de vertébrés du Ludien supérieur. 13-Rongeurs
Jean-Louis Hartenberger and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Eocene; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    Sainte-Néboule has yielded only 4 species of Rodents. But the Theridomyids (Blainvillimys rotundidens and Patriotheridomys altus) are very significative of the age of the locality: Ste-Néboule is lower than the marker level of Escamps 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 08, Fasc. 2-4 (1978)

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An evening bat (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the late Early Eocene of France, with comments on the antiquity of modern bats
Suzanne J. Hand, Bernard Sigé, Michael Archer and Karen H. Black
Keywords: evolution; palaeobiogeography; Prémontré; Western Europe; Ypresian

doi: 10.18563/pv.40.2.e2
 
  Abstract

    Bats are among the most numerous and widespread mammals today, but their fossil record is comparatively meagre and their early evolution poorly understood. Here we describe a new fossil bat from dental remains recovered from late Early Eocene sediments at Prémontré, northern France. This 50 million-year-old bat exhibits a mosaic of plesiomorphic and apomorphic dental features, including the presence of three lower premolars, a single-rooted p3, short p4 with metaconid, myotodont lower molars and a tall coronoid process of the dentary. This combination of features suggests it is an early member of Vespertilionidae, today’s most speciose and geographically widespread bat family. The Prémontré bat has bearing on hypotheses about the origins of vesper or evening bats (Family Vespertilionidae), as well as crown-group chiropterans.


      


  Article infos

Published in Vol.40-2 (2016)

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Terrestrial vertebrate paleocommunities from the Cerro del Pueblo Formation (Late Cretaceous; Late Campanian) at Las Aguilas, Coahuila, Mexico
Héctor E. Rivera-Sylva, Eberhard Frey, Wolfgang . Stinnesbeck, Natalia Amezcua Torres and Diana Flores Huerta
Keywords: Campanian; Coahuila; dinosaurs; Mexico.; vertebrates

doi: 10.18563/pv.42.2.e1
 
  Abstract

    The Las Águilas site near Porvenir de Jalpa, Coahuila, Mexico, is extremely rich in tetrapod remains comprising both bones and trackways of several dinosaur taxa of late Campanian age. Within a 50 m thick section we identified at least nine layers with dinosaur bone assemblages. In one of these the dinosaur bones are associated with remnants of eusuchian crocodilians, turtles, plesiosaurs, pterosaurs, tyrannosaurids, dromaeosaurids, parksosaurid, hadrosaurids, ceratopsids, and ankylosaurs. This layer is also rich in coprolites of turtles, crocodilians and likely theropods, thus providing evidence for the wealth of Late Cretaceous vertebrate life in the area. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol 42-2 (2019)

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Les vertébrés fossiles de Colombie et les problèmes posés par l'isolement du Continent sud-Américain.
Jaime de Porta
Keywords: Columbia; Cretaceous; Fauna; Quaternary; South America

doi: 10.18563/pv.2.2.77-94
 
  Abstract

    A general view is given of the vertebrate faunas, Cretaceous to Quaternary of age, found in Columbia and of their principal characteristics. This view leads to the discussion of the isolation of the South American continent and of the role played by the Bolivar syncline with respect to North American immigrants during the Oligocene. The absence of marine deposits of Oligocene age in the north and northwest of Columbia suggests the possibility of a communication with Central America. This communication would have permitted the passage of hystricomorph rodents, of platyrrhine monkeys, and of colubrids. The non-occupation, until then, of the ecologie niches of these groups would have favored their installation beside the indigenous fauna. In this hypothesis it would no longer be necessary to admit that these vertebrates arrived as «island hoppers ››. The eco-biologic conditions would explain the absence of large-sized forms of North American origin. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 02, Fasc. 2 (1969)

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