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First record of the family Protocetidae in the Lutetian of Senegal (West Africa)
Lionel Hautier, Raphaël Sarr, Fabrice Lihoreau, Rodolphe Tabuce and Pierre Marwan Hameh
Keywords: innominate; Lutetian; Protocetid; Senegal

doi: 10.18563/pv.38.2.e2

    The earliest cetaceans are found in the early Eocene of Indo-Pakistan. By the late middle to late Eocene, the group colonized most oceans of the planet. This late Eocene worldwide distribution clearly indicates that their dispersal took place during the middle Eocene (Lutetian). We report here the first discovery of a protocetid fossil from middle Eocene deposits of Senegal (West Africa). The Lutetian cetacean specimen from Senegal is a partial left innominate. Its overall form and proportions, particularly the well-formed lunate surface with a deep and narrow acetabular notch, and the complete absence of pachyostosis and osteosclerosis, mark it as a probable middle Eocene protocetid cetacean. Its size corresponds to the newly described Togocetus traversei from the Lutetian deposits of Togo. However, no innominate is known for the Togolese protocetid, which precludes any direct comparison between the two West African sites. The Senegalese innominate documents a new early occurrence of this marine group in West Africa and supports an early dispersal of these aquatic mammals by the middle Eocene.

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Published in Vol.38-2 (2014)

Eurodexeinae, eine neue unterfamilie der Artiodactyla (Mammalia) aus dem unter- und mitteleozän europas
Jorg Erfurt and Jean Sudre
Keywords: Artiodactyls; Eocene; evolution; Germany; Lutetian; new genus; New subfamily

    Dichobunoid artiodactyls are described in this paper from the middle Eocene Geiseltal lignite deposits near Halle (Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany). The genera Eurodexis and Parahexacodus are established based on odontologica1 studies. The type-species are E. ceciliensis (FRANZEN & KRUMBIEGEL, 1981) and P. germanicus n. sp. from the "obere Mittelkohle" (see text), MP 13. The genera are referred to the new subfamily Eurodexeinae (Dichobunidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia), which also contains the monospecific genus Eygalayodon SUDRE & MARANDAT, 1993. These new genera show many features similar to North American homacodontids and antiacodontids. They exemplify a high degree of diversity in European dichobunids. Moreover, the family Dichobunidae includes the Dichobuninae and the Hyperdichobuninae. The connection of the posthypocristid with the postentocristid, the shift of a medial to a lingual position of the hypoconulid on the lower molars and the development of a large, caniniform P1 are regarded as the principal tendencies of the eurodexeines. The entoconid is larger and more mesially situated compared to that of Diacodexis. The hypoconulid has a lingual position on a broad postcingulid. The elongation of the premolars and the presence of diastemata are considered associated with extension of the muzzle. This and the acute tubercles of the molars could indicate a limited degree of insectivory. Protodichobune cf. oweni and Diacodexis cf. varleli, first reported here from the "untere Unterkohle" (MP 11) of the Geiseltal, demonstrate the existence of forms in the basal part of the middle Eocene, that are direct descendants of lower Eocene ones. Eurodexis russelli n. sp. from MP 10 of Premontre is the most primitive representative of Eurodexis. A further part of this lineage could be Messelobunodon sp. from MP 11 of Messel (Germany). Another form from Premontre, referred to Eurodexeinae indet., represents the origin of the lineage to Parahexacodus germanicus n. sp. from the Geiseltal (MP 13). The identification of several lineages in MP 10 is evidence of an adaptive radiation during this time. Unfortunately the history of the earlier species of Diacodexis is not known well enough to exclude earlier diversifications. Our study shows the independent development of artiodactyls at the end of the lower Eocene in Europe, North America (and maybe in Asia) with much convergence. The question of the geographic origin of the genus Diacodexis is still open. 

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Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

Révision des Chiroptères Lutériens de Messel (Hesse, Allemagne).
Donald E. Russell and Bernard Sigé
Keywords: Chiroptera; Lutetian; Messel

doi: 10.18563/pv.3.4.83-182

    The revision of the Lutetian chiropterans from Messel, first described by Revilliod in 1917, is based on the anatomy of the teeth and the skeleton.  A figuration or refiguration of thematerial utilized accompanies the new description, which goes beyond that of the original monograph.
    The study shows a certain variability of the dental structure within the genera Palaeochiropteryx Revilliod and Archaeonycteris Revilliod,  as well as a general resemblance of the two forms. The morphology of the teeth permits, however, the verification of the validity of the different species: Palaeochiropteryx tupaiodon Revilliod, P. spiegeli Revilliod, Archaeonycterís trigonodon Revilliod, and Archaeonycteris revilliodi, n. sp.
    Some differences of the skeletal and dental anatomy tend to indicate a stage of evolution less advanced for the genus Archaeonycteris.
    The comparison of the chiropterans of Messel with the principal groups of living chiropterans, as well as with different Eocene fossíls (notably Cecílionycteris Heller and Icaronycteris Jepsen) leads to a more precise idea of the anatomy of primitive chiropterans. This comparison also permits the proposition that the oid forms so far described by integrated in a superfamily, the Palaeochiropterygoidea and allows   a general phylogenetic hypothesis to be advanced for the order Chiroptera. 

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Published in Vol. 03, Fasc. 4 (1970)