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August 2020
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Print ISSN: 0031-0247
Online ISSN: 2274-0333
Frequency: biannual

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Repartition et dynamisme des faunes de Lacertilia et d'Amphisbaenia dans l'Eocène Europe
Marc Augé
Keywords: Amphisbaenia; climate; Endemism; Eocene; Europe; Lacertilia; Metabolism

    The composition of assemblages of lizards and Amphisbaenian from the European Eocene are described. At least ten lizard families are identified from the lower European Eocene levels. Eight are still recorded in the last level (Escamps) of the late Eocene. Agamid lizards (genus Tinosaurus) died out by the end of the lower Eocene and Varanid lizards (genus Saniwa) disappeared by the beginning of the late Eocene. Amphisbaenians are recorded throughout the Eocene in Europe. The lacertilian fossil record of Europe and North America show a high degree of faunal resemblance in the early Eocene, followed by a decrease during the later part of the epoch. The lacertilian and amphisbaenian faunas from the European Eocene are not subject to great variations during the period; this is in contrast with the mammal record at the same time. It is argued that the low metabolic rates and the ectothermy of lizards could explain those differences, along with the increasing insularity of the West European area during the late Eocene time.


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 22, Fasc. 2-3 (1993)

Les Issiodoromyinae (Rodentia, Theridomyidae) de l'Eocène supérieur à l'Oligocène supérieur en Europe occidentale
Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: climate; Faunal turnover; Paleogene

    Based on material from 30 localities, morphologic dental, cranial and biometric analyses have permitted the characterization of two parallel Issiodoromyine lineages, and also the definition of diverse species representing several evolutive stages. Thus it is that new lineages complete the contribution made by the Theridomyinae and Cricetidae and permit, for the Quercy in particular, additional precision in the biochronologic succession of the localities. One of the lineages is limited to the genus Pseudoltinomys LAVOCAT; the other evolves from the genus Elfomys HARTENBERGER to the genus Issiodoromys BRAVARD in GERVAIS. The latter is affected by profound anatomical changes due to a functional modification of the mastication apparatus. These changes seem to be able to be put in relation with the aridification and cooling of the climate at the end of the Eocene. At the end of the middle Oligocene, a new chewing structure is achieved. It is found in diverse living rodents that inhabit a rather arid steppe environment (Cavia, Pedetes, Ctenodactylus). To these supposed nearby ecologic conditions, these rodents have responded in a convergent fashion. It is possible to attribute to the extreme specialization of Issiodoromys its incapacity to adapt to the new climatic crisis of the end of the Oligocene. The arrival of immigrants may be considered as another cause of its disappearance at this time, complementary or not with the first. 

  Article infos

Published in Vol. 07, Fasc. 1-2 (1976)