Current issue

June 2022
<< prev. next >>

Print ISSN: 0031-0247
Online ISSN: 2274-0333
Frequency: biannual

Article Management

You must log in to submit or manage articles.

You do not have an account yet ? Sign up.

Palaeovertebrata in press article

Preliminary report on the fishes (Chondrichthyes & Teleostei) from the lower Oligocene (Rupelian) Red Bluff Clay at site AMo-9, Monroe County, Alabama, USA
Jun A. Ebersole, David J. Cicimurri, Lindsey M. Stallworth and Andrew D. Gentry
Keywords: Batomorphii; Elasmobranchii; Galeomorphi; Gulf Coastal Plain; Vicksburg Group

doi: 10.18563/pv.47.2.e2

Cite this article: Ebersole J. A., Cicimurri D. J., Stallworth L. M., Gentry A. D., 2024. Preliminary report on the fishes (Chondrichthyes & Teleostei) from the lower Oligocene (Rupelian) Red Bluff Clay at site AMo-9, Monroe County, Alabama, USA. Palaeovertebrata 47 (2)-e2. doi: 10.18563/pv.47.2.e2

Export citation


Herein we describe a small but relatively diverse assemblage of fossil fishes derived from the lower Oligocene (Rupelian) Red Bluff Clay at site AMo-9 in Monroe County, Alabama, USA. Identified amongst the remains are 15 unequivocal taxa representing 11 families within five orders, and one additional taxon represents an unknown order and family. Taxa identified include Eostegostoma sp., Otodus (Carcharocles) sp., Mitsukurinidae/Carchariidae indet., Macrorhizodus praecursor, Galeorhinus sp., Negaprion gilmorei, Physogaleus sp., “Sphyrna” sp., Galeocerdo sp., cf. “Aetobatus” sp., Sphyraena sp., Xiphiorhynchus kimblalocki, Xiphiorhynchus sp., Cylindracanthus ornatus, and C. rectus. Several additional fossils could not be identified beyond Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, and Teleostei, but they likely belong to one of the identified taxa within this paleofauna. All of the fishes previously reported from the Red Bluff Clay within the entirety of the Gulf Coastal Plain of the USA are otolith-based, and each of the 15 unequivocal taxa reported herein are important new records for this lithostratigraphic unit. In particular, the Eostegostoma sp. and Xiphiorhynchus spp. specimens represent the first occurrences of these taxa in Alabama. The specimens of C. ornatus, Eostegostoma sp., and X. kimblalocki are stratigraphic and temporal range extensions from the middle and late Eocene into the Rupelian Stage of the Oligocene. Other described taxa may represent transitional forms between those described from the late Eocene and late Oligocene within the region. This study provides a tantalizing preliminary view into faunal transitions that occurred amongst marine fishes across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary within the Gulf Coastal Plain of the USA. 

in press


Adnet, S., Cappetta, H., 2008. New fossil triakid sharks from the Eocene of Prémontré, France, and comments on fossil record of the family. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 53(3), 433-448.
Agassiz, L., 1835a. Explication des planches de la cinquième livraison. Imprimerie de Petitpierre et Prince, Neuchatel.
Agassiz, L., 1835b. Recherches sur les poissons fossiles. Tome IV (livr. 4). Imprimerie de Petitpierre, Neuchatel.
Agassiz, L., 1835c. Kritische Revision der in der Ittiolitologia Vetonese abgebildeten fossilen Fische. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde 1835, 290–316.
Agassiz, L., 1838. Recherches sur les poissons fossiles, 11th livraison (November 1838). Petitpierre et Prince (text) and H. Nicolet (plates), Neuchâtel.
Agassiz, L., 1843. Recherches sur les poissons fossiles, vol. 3, 15th and 16th livraisons (March 1843). Jent and Gassmann, Soleure (text) and H. Nicolet (plates), Neuchâtel, pp. 157-390.
Ameghino, F., 1906. Les formations sédimentaires du Crétacé supérieur et du Tertiaire de Patagonie avec un parallèle entre leurs faunes mammalogiques et celles de l'ancien continent. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 3(8), 1-568.
Applegate, S. P., 1974. A revision of the higher taxa of Orectoloboids. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 14(2), 743-751.
Applegate, S. P., Espinosa-Arrubarrena, L., 1996. The Fossil History of Carcharodon and Its Possible Ancestor, Cretolamna A Study in Tooth Identification. In: A.P. Klimley, A. P., Ainley, D. (Eds.), Great White Sharks. The biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 19-36.
Arambourg, C., 1935. Note préliminaire sur les vertébrés fossiles des phosphates du Maroc. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 5(5), 413-439.
Arratia, G., Scasso, R. A., Kiessling, W., 2004. Late Jurassic fishes from Longing Gap, Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(1), 41-55.
Averianov A. O., Udovichenko, N. I., 1993. Age of vertebrates from the Andarak locality (southern Fergana). Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 1(3), 139-141.
Ballen, G. A., 2021. New records of the genus Sphyraena (Teleostei: Sphyraenidae) from the Caribbean with comments on the dental characters of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 40(6), e1849246.
Betancur-R, R., Broughton, R., Wiley, E., Carpenter, K., López, J., Li, C., Holcroft, N., Arcila, D., Sanciangco, M., Cureton, J., II, Zhang, F., Buser, T., Campbell, M., Ballesteros, J., Roa-Varon, A., Willis, S., Borden, W., Rowley, T., Reneau, P., Hough, D., Lu, G., Grande, T., Arratia, G., Ortí, G., 2013. The Tree of Life and a New Classification of Bony Fishes. PLOS Currents: Tree of Life. treeoflife/article/the-tree-of-life-and-a-new-classification-of-bony-fishes/. (Accessed 1/5/24).
Blainville, H. M. D. de., 1816. Prodrome d'une nouvelle distribution systématique du règne animal. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomatique de Paris 8, 105-124.
Blainville, H. M. D. de., 1818. Sur les ichthyolites ou les poissons fossiles. Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle 27, 310-391.
Blow, W. H., 1979. The Cainozoic Globigerinida. E.J. Brill, Leiden.
Bonaparte, C. L., 1835. Prodromus systematis ichthyologiae. Nuovi Annali delle Scienze naturali Bologna (Ser. 1) 2(4), 181-196, 272-277.
Bonaparte, C. L., 1838. Selachorum tabula analytica. Nuovi Annali della Science Naturali Bologna 1(2), 195-214.
Bonaparte, C. L., 1840. Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Tomo III. Fasc. 27-29. Pesci, Roma, pp. 136-154.
Bramlette, M. N., Riedel, W. R., 1954. Stratigraphic value of discoasters and some other microfossils related to Recent coccolithophores. Journal of Paleontology 28, 385-403.
Bybell, L. M., 1982. Late Eocene to early Oligocene Calcareous nannofossils in Alabama and Mississippi. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions 32, 295-302.
Campbell, R. B., 1929. Fish otoliths, their occurrence and value as stratigraphic markers. Journal of Paleontology 3(3), 254-279.
Cappetta, H., 1980. Modification du statut générique de quelques espèces de sélaciens crétacés et tertiaires. Palaeovertebrata 10(1), 29-42.
Cappetta, H., 2012. Chondrichthyes Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii: Teeth. In: Schultze, H.-P. (ed.), Handbook of Paleoichthyology, Volume 3E. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Münchin, pp. 1-512.
Cappetta, H., Case, G. R., 2016. A selachian fauna from the middle Eocene (Lutetian, Lisbon Formation) of Andalusia, Covington County, Alabama, USA. Palaeontographica Abt. A 307(1-6), 43-103.
Carrillo-Briceño, J. D., Luz, Z., Hendy, A., Kocsis, L., Aguilera, O., Vennemann, T., 2019. Neogene Caribbean Elasmobranchs: Diversity, Paleoecology and Paleoenvironmental Significance of the Cocinetas Basin Assemblage (Guajira Peninsula, Colombia), Biogeosciences 16(2019), 33-56.
Carrillo-Briceño, J. D., Villafaña J. A., De Gracia, C., Flores-Alcívar, F. F., Kindlimann, R., Abella, J., 2020. Diversity and paleoenvironmental implications of an elasmobranch assemblage from the Oligocene–Miocene boundary of Ecuador. PeerJ 8:e9051.
Case, G. R., 1980. A selachian fauna from the Trent Formation, Lower Miocene (Aquitanian) of Eastern North Carolina. Palaeontographica, Abt. A 171(1-3), 75-103.
Case, G. R., Borodin, P. D., 2000. A middle Eocene selachian fauna from the Castle Hayne Limestone Formation of Duplin County, North Carolina. Münchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (A) 39, 17-32.
Casier, E., 1946. La faune ichthyologique de l'Yprésien de la Belgique. Mémoires du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 104, 1-267.
Castro, J. I., 2011. The sharks of North America. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Catesby, M., 1771. The natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands: containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects, and plants: particularly, those not hitherto described, or incorrectly figured by former authors, with their descriptions in English and French: to which is prefixed, a new and correct map of the countries, with observations on their natural state, inhabitants, and productions, 3rd edition, 2 vols. B. White, London.
Cicimurri, D. J., Ebersole, J. A., 2015. Two new species of Pseudaetobatus Cappetta, 1986 (Batoidei: Myliobatidae) from the southeastern United States. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.15A, 1-17.
 Cicimurri, D. J., Knight, J. L., 2009. Late Oligocene sharks and rays from the Chandler Bridge Formation, Dorchester County, South Carolina, USA. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54(4), 627-647.
Clayton, A. A., Ciampaglio, C. N., Cicimurri, D .J., 2013. An inquiry into the stratigraphic occurrence of a Claibornian (Eocene) vertebrate fauna from Covington County, Alabama. Bulletin Alabama Museum of Natural History 31, 60-73.
Cole, W. S., 1927. A foraminiferal fauna from the Guayabal formation in Mexico. Bulletins of American Paleontology 14(51), 1-36.
Compagno, L. J. V., 1973. Interrelationships of living elasmobranchs. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 53 (Supplement 1), 15-61.
Cooke, C. W., 1923. The correlation of the Vicksburg group. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 133, 1-11.
Cope, E. D., 1867. An addition to the vertebrate fauna of the Miocene period, with a synopsis of the extinct Cetacea of the United States. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 19, 138-156.
Cope, E. D., 1870. A partial synopsis of the fishes of the fresh waters of North Carolina. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 11(84), 448-495.
Cope, E. D., 1871. Observations on the systematic relations of the fishes. The American Naturalist 5, 579-593.
Copeland, C. W., Deboo, P. B., 1967. Summary of upper Paleogene and lower Neogene stratigraphy of Alabama. In: Jones, D.E. (ed.), Geology of the Coastal Plain of Alabama: Geological Society of America 80th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, Alabama. Geological Society Guidebook, Tuscaloosa, pp. 44-46.
Cuvier, G. L. C. F. D, 1829. Le règne animal, distribué d'après son organisation, pour servir de base à l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction à l'anatomie comparée. Edition 2. Déterville, de l'Impr. de A. Belin, Paris.
Dartevelle, E., Casier, E., 1943. Les poissons fossiles du Bas-Congo et des régions voisines. Annales du Musée du Congo Belge, Sér. A (Minéralogie Géologie, Paléontologie) 3, 2(1), 1-200.
DeKay, J. E., 1842. Zoology of New York; or, The New York Fauna; comprising detailed descriptions of all the animals hitherto observed within the state of New York, with brief notices of those occasionally found near its borders, and accompanied by appropriate illustrations. Part IV. Fishes. Appleton and Company, Albany, New York.
Dockery, D. T., III, 1982. Lower Oligocene Bivalvia of the Vicksburg Group in Mississippi. Mississippi Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Geology Bulletin 123, 1-261.
Dockery, D. T., III, Lozouet, P., 2003. Molluscan faunas across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary in the North American Gulf Coastal Plain, with comparisons to those of the Eocene and Oligocene of France. In: Prothro, D. R., Ivany, L. C., and Nesbitt, E. A. (eds.), From Greenhouse to Icehouse: The Marine Eocene-Oligocene Transition. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 303-340,
Dockery, D. T., Thompson, D. E., 2016. The Geology of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson.
Ebert, D. A., Dando, M., 2020. Field Guide to Sharks, Rays & Chimaeras of Europe and the Mediterranean. Princeton University Press, Woodstock.
Ebersole, J. A., Cicimurri, D. J., Ebersole, S. M., 2024. Additions to the Pliocene fish assemblage (Chondrichthyes; Osteichthyes) from Dauphin Island, Alabama, USA. Paleoichthys 8, 1-20.
Ebersole, J. A., Cicimurri, D. J., Stringer, G. L., 2019. Taxonomy and biostratigraphy of the elasmobranchs and bony fishes (Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes) of the lower-to-middle Eocene (Ypresian to Bartonian) Claiborne Group in Alabama, USA, including an analysis of otoliths. European Journal of Taxonomy 585, 1-274.
Ebersole, J. A., Cicimurri, D. J., Stringer, G. L., 2021. Marine fishes (Elasmobranchii, Teleostei) from the Glendon Limestone Member of the Byram Formation (Oligocene, Rupelian) at site AWa-9, Washington County, Alabama, USA, including a new species of gobiid (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae). Acta Geologica Polonica 74(4), 481-518.
Ebersole, J. A., Dean, L. S., 2013. The history of Late Cretaceous vertebrate research in Alabama. Bulletin Alabama Museum of Natural History 31(1), 3-45.
Ebersole, J. A., Ebersole, S. M., Cicimurri, D. J., 2017. The occurrence of early Pleistocene marine fish remains from the Gulf Coast of Mobile County, Alabama, USA. Palaeodiversity 10(1), 97-115.
Ebersole, J. A., Kelosky, A. T., Huerta-Beltrán, B. L., Cicimurri, D. J., Drymon, J. M., 2023. Observations on heterodonty within the dentitions of Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson, 1836), from the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA, with implications on the fossil record. PeerJ 11, e15142.
Ellwood, B. B., Febo, L., Anderson, L., Hackworth, R. T., Means, G. H., Bryan, J. A., Tomkin, J., Rowe, H., Jovane, L., 2020. Regional to global correlation of Eocene–Oligocene boundary transition successions using biostratigraphic, geophysical and geochemical methods. Geological Magazine 157, 80-100.
Euphrasen, B. A., 1790., Raja (Narinari). Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm 11(for 1790), 17-219.
Feldmann, R. M., Portell, R. W., 2007. First report of Costacopluma Collins and Morris, 1975 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Retroplumidae) from the Eocene of Alabama, U.S.A. Journal of Crustacean Biology 27(1), 90-96.
Fierstine, H. L., Applegate, S. P., 1974. Xiphiorhynchus kimblalocki, a new billfish from the Eocene of Mississippi with remarks on the systematics of xiphioid fishes. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 73, 14-22.
Fierstine, H. L., Starnes, J. E., 2005. Xiphiorhynchus cf. X. eocaenicus (Woodward, 1901), (Scombroidei: Xiphiidae: Xiphiorhynchinae) from the middle Eocene of Mississippi, the first Transatlantic distribution of a species of Xiphiorhynchus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(2), 280-287.[0280:XCXEWS]2.0.CO;2
Fierstine, H. L., Stringer, G. L., 2007. Specimens of the billfish Xiphiorhynchus van Beneden, 1871, from the Yazoo Clay Formation (late Eocene), Louisiana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(1), 226-231.[226:SOTBXV]2.0.CO;2
Frederickson, J. A., Schaefer, S. N., Doucette-Frederickson, J. A., 2015. A Gigantic Shark from the Lower Cretaceous Duck Creek Formation of Texas. PLoS ONE 10(6), e0127162.
Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W. N., Van der Laan, R., eds., 2024. Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. (Accessed 1/18/2024).
Frizzell, D. L., Dante, J. H., 1965. Otoliths of some early Cenozoic fishes of the Gulf Coast. Journal of Paleontology 39(4), 687-718.
Frizzell, D. L., Lamber, C., 1962. Distinctive “congrid type” fish otoliths from the lower Tertiary of the Gulf Coast (Pisces: Anguilliformes). Proceedings of the California Academy of Science Series (4)32, 87-101.
Garman, S., 1885., Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garm. - A living species of Cladodont shark. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 12(1),1-35.
Gartner, S., Smith, L. A., 1967. Coccoliths and related calcareous nannofossils from the Yazoo Formation (Jackson, Late Eocene) of Louisiana. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Papers 20, 1-7.
Gibbes, R. W., 1849. Monograph of the fossil Squalidae of the United States. Art. 14. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1(2), 191-206.
Glückman, L. S., 1964. Sharks of Paleogene and their stratigraphic significance. Nauka Press, Moscou. [In Russian].
Goodrich, E. S., 1930. Studies on the structure & development of vertebrates. Macmillan, London.
Grandstaff, B. S., Pellegrini, R. A., Parris, D. C., Clements, D., 2017. Thin section microscopy of the fossil fish Cylindracanthus. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science 96, 139-152.
Gray, J. E., 1851. List of the specimens of fish in the collection of the British Museum. Part I. Chondropterygii. British Museum, London.
Greenwood, P. H., Rosen, D. E., Weitzman, S. H., Myers, G. S., 1966. Phyletic studies of teleostean fishes, with a provisional classification of living forms. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 131(4), 341-455.
Griffith, E., Smith, C. H., 1834. The class Pisces, arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with supplementary additions, by Edward Griffith, F.R.S., &c. and Lieut.-Col. Charles Hamilton Smith, F.R., L.S.S., &c. &c. In: Cuvier, G. (ed.), The animal kingdom, arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, member of the Institute of France, &c. &c. &c., with supplementary additions to each order, by Edward Griffith ... and others. (2nd ed.) Whittaker & Co., London, pp. 1-680.
Guitart-Manday, D. J., 1966. Nuevo nombre para una especie de Tiburón del género Isurus (Elasmobranchii: Isuridae) de Aguas Cubanas. Poeyana, Ser. A, 15, 1-9.
Hay, O. P., 1902. Bibliography and catalogue of the fossil vertebrata of North America. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 179, 1-868.
Haye, T., Reinecke, T., Gürs, K., Piehl, A., 2008. Die Elasmobranchier des Neochattiums (Oberoligozän) von Johannistal, Ostholstein, und Ergänzungen zu deren Vorkommen in der Ratzeburg-Formation (Neochattium) des südöstlichen Nordseebeckens. Palaeontos 14, 55-97.
Herman, J., 1977. Additions to the Eocene fish fauna of Belgium. 3. Revision of the Orectolobiforms. Tertiary Research 1(4), 127-138.
Hilgard, E., 1860. Report on the geology and agriculture of the State of Mississippi. E. Barksdale, State Printer, Jackson, Mississippi.
Hoese, H. D., Moore, R. H., 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Hoppin, R. A., 1953. Oscillation in the Vicksburg Stage as shown by the foraminifera from a well in George County, Mississippi. Journal of Paleontology 27(4), 577-584.
Hovestadt D. C., Hovestadt-Euler, M., 2013. Generic assessment and reallocation of Cenozoic Myliobatinae based on new information of tooth, tooth plate and caudal spine morphology of extant taxa. Palaeontos 24, 1-66.
Howe, H. V., 1928. Additions to the list of species occurring in the type Red Bluff Clay, Hiwannee, Mississippi. Journal of Paleontology 2(3), 173-176.
Huxley, T. H., 1880. On the application of the laws of evolution to the arrangement of the Vertebrata, and more particularly of the Mammalia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880, 649-662.
Ikejiri, T., Ebersole, J. A., Blewitt, H. L., Ebersole, S. M., 2013. An overview of Late Cretaceous vertebrates from Alabama. Bulletin Alabama Museum of Natural History 31(1), 46-71.
Ingle D. N., Natanson, L.J., Porter, M. E., 2018. Mechanical behavior of shark vertebral centra at biologically relevant strains. Journal of Experimental Biology 221(24), jeb188318.
Jaekel, O., 1895. Unter-tertiäre Selachier aus Südrussland. Mémoirs du Comité geologique de St. Petersburg 9(4), 19-35.
Jaekel, O., 1898. Verzeichniss der Selachier des Mainzer Oligocäns. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1898, 161-169.
Jordan, D. S., 1898. Description of a species of fish (Mitsukurina owstoni) from Japan, the type of a distinct family of lamnoid sharks. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 3 Zoology 1(6), 199-204.
Jordan, D. S., Evermann, B. W., 1896. The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part I. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 47, 1-1240.
Kamptner, E., 1963. Coccolithineen-Skelettreste aus Tiefseeablagerungen des Pazifischen Ozeans. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 66, 139-204.
Koken, E., 1888. Neue Untersuchungen an tertiären fisch-otolithen. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Zeitschrift 40(2), 274-305.
Kriwet, J., Mewis, H., Hampe, O., 2014. A partial skeleton of a new lamniform Mackerel Shark from the Miocene of Europe. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 60(4), 857-875.
Kruckow, T., Thies, D., 1990. Die Neoselachier der Paleokaribik (Pisces: Elasmobranchii). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 119, 1-102.
Lawley, R., 1876. Nuovi studi sopra ai pesci ed altri vertebrati fossili delle Colline Toscane. Firenze, Tipografia dell Arte della Stampa, 1–122.
Leidy, J., 1856. Description of two Ichthyodorulites. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia VIII, 11-12.
Leriche, M., 1905. Les poissons éocènes de la Belgique. Mémoires du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 3(11), 49-228.
Leriche, M., 1906. Contribution à lètude des poisons fossils du Nord de la France et des regions voisines. Mémoires de la Société géologique du Nord 5, 1-430.
Leriche, M., 1910. Les poissons oligocènes de la Belgique. Mémoire du Musée Royal d’Historie Naturelle de la Belgique 5(4), 229-363.
Leriche, M., 1942. Contribution à l'étude des faunes ichthyologiques marines des terrains tertiaires de la Plaine Côtière Atlantique et du centre des Etats-Unis. Les synchronismes des formations tertiaires des deux côtés de l'Atlantique. Mémoires de la Société géologique de France 45(2-4), 1-110.
Lesueur, C. A., 1822. Description of a Squalus, of a very large size, which was taken on the coast of New-Jersey. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 2, 343-352.
Lim, D. D., Motta, P. J., Mara, K., Martin, A. P., 2010. Phylogeny of hammerhead sharks (Family Sphyrnidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55(2), 572-579.
Linnaeus, C., 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata). Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.
Maisch, H. M., IV, Becker, M. A., Raines, B. W., Chamberlain, J. A., Jr., 2014. Chondrichthyans from the Tallahatta-Lisbon Formation contact (Middle Eocene), Silas, Choctaw County, Alabama. Paludicola 9(4), 183-209.
Maisch, H. M., IV, Becker, M. A., Raines, B. W., Chamberlain, J. A., Jr., 2016. Osteichthyans from the Tallahatta–Lisbon Formation contact (middle Eocene–Lutetian) Pigeon Creek, Conecuh-Covington counties, Alabama with comments on transatlantic occurrences in the Northern Atlantic Ocean Basin. PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology 13(3), 1-22.
Mancini, E. A., 1979. Eocene-Oligocene boundary in southwest Alabama. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions 29, 282-289.
Mancini, E. A., Waters, L. A., 1986. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of upper Eocene and lower Oligocene strata in southern Mississippi and southwestern and south-central Alabama. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 16(1), 24-33.
Mancini, E. A., Tew, B. H., 1990. Tertiary sequence stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of southwestern Alabama. Guidebook for Field Trip 1, Southeastern Section, Geological Society of America, 39th Annual Meeting, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, April 2-4, 1990.
Manning, E. M., 2003. Chapter 21: The Eocene/Oligocene transition in marine vertebrates of the Gulf Coastal Plain. In: Prothro, D.R., Ivany, L.C., Nesbitt, E.A. (eds.), From Greenhouse to Icehouse, the Marine Eocene−Oligocene Transition, Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 366-385.
Menner, V. V., 1928. Les Sélaciens du Paléogène de Manghyschlak, d'Emba et du versant oriental d'Oural. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, Section Géologique 6(3-4), 292-338. [in russian].
Meunier, F. J., Huysseune, A., 1992. The concept of bone tissue in Osteichthyes. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 42(2-3), 445-458.
Morse, P. E., Stock, M. K., James, K. C., Natanson, L. J., Stock, S. R., 2022. Shark centra microanatomy and mineral density variation studied with laboratory micro-Computed Tomography, Journal of Structural Biology 214(1), 107831.
Müller, A., 1999. Ichthyofaunen aus dem Atlantischen Tertiär der USA. Leipziger Geowissenschaften 9(10), 1-360.
Müller, J., 1845. Über den Bau und die Grenzen der Ganoiden, und über das natürliche System der Fische. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 11(1), 91-141.
Müller, J., Henle, F. G. J., 1837. Über die Gattungen der Haifische und Rochen nach einer von ihm mit Hrn. Henle unternommenen gemeinschaftlichen Arbeit über die Naturgeschichte der Knorpelfische. Berichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1837, 111-118.
Naylor, G. J. P., Caira, J. N., Jensen, K., Rosana, K. A. M., Straube, N., Lakner, C., 2012. Elasmobranch phylogeny: A mitochondrial estimate based on 595 Species. In: Carrier, J. C., Musick, J. A., Heithaus, M. R. (eds.), Biology of Sharks and their Relatives, Edition 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 31-56.
Nelson, J. S., Grande, T. C., Wilson, M. V. H., 2016. Fishes of the World, 5th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
Nolf, D., 1985. Otolithi Piscium. In: Schultze, H.-P. (ed.), Handbook of Paleoichthyology, Volume 10. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, pp. 1-145.
Nolf, D., 2013. The Diversity of Fish Otoliths, Past and Present. Operational Directorate “Earth and History of Life” of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium.
Ogg, J. C., Ogg, G. M., Gradstein, F. M., 2016. A concise Geologic Time Scale 2016. Elsevier, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Parris, D. C., Grandstaff, B. S., Bell, G. L., Jr., 2001. Reassessment of the affinities of the extinct genus Cylindracanthus (Osteichthyes). Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science 80, 161-172.
Parsons, G. R., 2006. Sharks, Skates, and Rays of the Gulf of Mexico. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson.
Patterson, C., Rosen, D. E., 1977. Review of the ichthyodectiform and other Mesozoic teleost fishes and the theory and practice of classifying fossils. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 158, 83-172.
Perch-Nielsen, K., 1985. Cenozoic calcareous nannofossils. In, Bolli, H. M., Saunders, J. B., Perch-Nielsen, K. (eds.), Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 427-555.
Perez, V. J., Godfrey, S. J., Kent, B. W., Weems, R. E., Nance, J. R., 2019. The transition between Carcharocles chubutensis and Carcharocles megalodon (Otodontidae, Chondrichthyes): lateral cusplet loss through time. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 38, 6.
Pinna, M. C. C. de, 1996. Teleostean monophyly. In: Stiassny, M. L. J., Parenti, L. R., Johnson, G. D. (eds.), Interrelationships of Fishes. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 147-162.
Poey, F., 1868. Synopsis piscium cubensium. Catalogo Razonado de los peces de la isla de Cuba. Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba 2, 279-484.
Poey, F., 1875. Enumeratio piscium cubensium. Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 4, 75-161.
Probst, J., 1878. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der fossilen Fische aus der Molasse von Baltringen. Hayfische. Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg 34, 113-154.
Purdy, R. W., Schneider, V. P., Applegate, S. P., McLellan, J. H., Meyer, R.L., Slaughter, R., 2001. The Neogene sharks, rays, and bony fishes from Lee Creek Mine, Aurora, North Carolina. In: Ray, C. E., Bohaska, D. J. (eds.), Geology and Paleontology of the Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina, III. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 90, 71-202.
Rafinesque, C. S., 1810a. Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e pinate della Sicilia, con varie osservazioni sopra i medisimi, lère partie. Sanfilippo, Palermo.
Rafinesque, C. S., 1810b. Indice d'ittiologia siciliana ossia catalogo metodico dei nomi latini, italiani, e siciliani, e siciliani dei pesci, che si rinvengono in Sicilia disposti secondo un metodo naturale eseguito da un appendice che contiene la descrizione di alcuni nuovi pesci siciliani. Ill Opuscolo del signore C.S. Rafinesque Schmaltz. Giovanni del Nobolo, Messina.
Rafinesque, C. S., 1815. Analyse de la nature, ou tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés, Per le stampe di Sanfilippo, Palermo.
Raymond, D. E., Osborne, W. E., Copeland, C. W., Neathery, T. L., 1988. Alabama Stratigraphy. Geological Survey of Alabama Circular 140, 1-97.
Regan, C. T., 1923. The skeleton of Lepidosteus, with remarks on the origin and evolution of the lower neopterygian fishes. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1923(1-2), 445-461.
Reinecke, T., Louwye, S., Havekost, U., Mohs, H., 2011. The elasmobranch fauna of the late Burdigalian, Miocene, at Werder-Uessen, Lower Saxony, Germany, and its relationships with Early Miocene faunas of the North Atlantic, Central Paratethys and Mediterranean. Palaeontos 20, 1-170.
Reinecke, T., Moths, H., Grant, A., Breitkreuz, H., 2005. Die Elasmobranchier des norddeutschen Chattiums, insbesondere des Sternberger Gesteins (Eochattium, Oligozän). Palaeontos 8, 1-135.
Reinecke, T., Stapf, H., Raisch, M., 2001. Die Selachier und Chimären des Unteren Meeressandes und Schleichsandes im Mainzer Becken (Rupelium, Unteres Oligozän). Palaeontos 1, 1-73.
Romano, M., Citton, P., Cipriani, A., Fabbi, S., Spanò, F., Marramà, G., Carnevale, G., 2021. Lamniform vertebrae from the Aptian-Albian Marne a Fucoidi of Umbria-Marche Domain (central Italy). Cretaceous Research 125, 104832.
Röse, A. F., 1793. Petri Artedi Angermannia-Sueci synonymia nominum piscium fere omnium. Ichthyologiae pars IV, editio II. Grypeswaldiae.
Rosen, D. E., 1985. An essay on euteleostean classification. American Museum Novitates 2827, 1-57.
Salem, M., 1971. Fossil otoliths of some lower Cenozoic perciform fishes of the Gulf Coast. Thesis, University of Missouri–Rolla.
Schwartz, F. J., 2008. A survey of tail spine characteristics of stingray species (order Myliobatiformes) frequenting the eastern Pacific Ocean from the international dateline to the Americas. Journal of the North Carolina Academy of Science 124(3), 72-81.
Schwartz, F. J., 2009. Ways to identify stingrays of the world possessing or lacking serrated stinging tail spines. Journal of the North Carolina Academy of Science 125(3), 107-109.
Siesser, W. G., 1983. Paleogene calcareous nannoplankton biostratigraphy: Mississippi, Alabama and Tennessee. Mississippi Department Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology Bulletin 125, 1-61.
Stainforth, R. M., Lamb, J. L., 1981. An evaluation of planktonic foraminiferal zonation of the Oligocene. Kansas University, Paleontological Contributions, Paper 104, 1-42.
Stone, N. R., Shimada, K., 2019. Skeletal anatomy of the Bigeye Sand Tiger Shark, Odontaspis noronhai (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae), and its implications for lamniform phylogeny, taxonomy, and conservation biology. Copeia 107(4), 632-652.
Swainson, W., 1839. On the natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals, Volume II. Spottiswoode & Co., London.
Szabo, E. W., Osborne, W. E., Copeland, C. W., Jr., Neathery, T. L., 1988. Geologic Map of Alabama. Geological Survey of Alabama Special Map 220. Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.
Tan Sin Hok., 1927. Over de samenstelling en het onstaan van krijt en mergelgesteenten van de Molukken. Jaarboek van het Mijnwezen in Nederlandsch Oost-Indie 55, 111-122.
Thurmond, J. T., Jones, D.E., 1981. Fossil vertebrates of Alabama. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Tuomey, M., 1858. Second Biennial Report of the Geology of Alabama. N. B. Cloud, State Printer, Montgomery, Alabama.
Türtscher, J., López-Romero, F. A., Jambura, P. L., Kindlimann, R., Ward, D. J., Kriwet, J., 2021. Evolution, diversity, and disparity of the tiger shark lineage Galeocerdo in deep time. Paleobiology 47(4), 574-590.
van Beneden, P. J., 1871. Recherches sur quelques poissons fossiles de Belgique. Bulletin de l’Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, series 3(31), 493-518.
van der Laan, R., Eschmeyer, W., Fricke, R., 2014. Family-group names of Recent fishes. Zootaxa 3882(2): 1-230.
van der Laan, R., Eschmeyer, W., Fricke, R., 2017. Cumulative addenda to family-group names of Recent fishes. Zootaxa 3882(2): 1-230.
Villalobos-Segura, E., Underwood, C. J., 2020. Radiation and divergence times of Batoidea. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 40(3):e1777147.
Wainwright, P. C., Smith, W. L., Price, S. A., Tang, K. L., Sparks, J. S., Ferry, L. A., Kuhn, K. L., Eytan, R. I., Near, T. J., 2012. The evolution of pharyngognathy: a phylogenetic and functional appraisal of the pharyngeal jaw key innovation in labroid fishes and beyond. Systematic Biology 61(6), 1001-1027.
Ward, D. J., Bonavia, C. G., 2001. Additions to, and a review of, the Miocene shark and ray fauna of Malta. Central Mediterranean Naturalist 3(3), 131-146.
Ward, D. J., Wiest, R. L., 1990. A checklist of Palaeocene and Eocene sharks and rays (Chondrichthyes) from the Pamunkey Group, Maryland and Virginia, USA. Tertiary Research 12(2), 81-88.
Weiler, W., 1929. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. V. Tertiäre Wirbeltiere. 3. Die Mittel-und obereocäne Fischfauna Ägyptens mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Teleostomie. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Neue Folge 1, 1-57.
Westgate, J. W., 2001. Chapter 11: Paleoecology and biostratigraphy of marginal marine Gulf Coast Eocene vertebrate localities. In: Gunnell, G. F. (ed.), Eocene Biodiversity: Unusual Occurrences and Rarely Sampled Habitats. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 263-297.
White, E. I., 1955. Notes on African Tertiary sharks. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Nigeria 5(3), 319-325.
White, E. I., 1956. The Eocene fishes of Alabama. Bulletins of American Paleontology 36(156), 123-150.
White, W. T., Naylor, G. J. P., 2016. Resurrection of the family Aetobatidae (Myliobatiformes) for the pelagic eagle rays, genus Aetobatus. Zootaxa 4139(3), 435-438.
Whitley, G. P., 1940. The fishes of Australia. Part I. The sharks, rays, devil-fish, and other primitive fishes of Australia and New Zealand. Australian zoological handbook. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney.
Winkler, T. C., 1874. Mémoire sur quelques restes de poissons du système heersien. Archives du Musée Teyler 4(1), 1-15.
Winkler, T. C., 1875. Beschreibung einiger fossiler Tertiär-Fischreste, vorzugsweise des Sternberger Gesteins. Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg 29, 97-129.
Woodward, A. S., 1889. Catalogue of the fossil fishes in the British Museum. Part. I. British Museum (Natural History), London.
Zhelezko, V. I., Kozlov, V.A., 1999. Elasmobranhii i biostratigraphia paleogena Zauralia i Srednei Asii. (Elasmobranchii and Palaeogene biostratigraphy of Transural and Central Asia). Materialy po stratigrafii i paleontologii Urala, 3. UrO RAN, Ekaterinburg.