December 2008
Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4
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Print ISSN: 0031-0247
Online ISSN: 2274-0333
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Palaeovertebrata Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4:December 2008

Table of contents

Short Communications

Henri Menu, 1925-2007
Bernard Sigé
Keywords: bats; biography

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.1-5

    Record of life and works of Henri Menu, French zoologist, contributor to the knowledge of living and fossil bats. 

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Nouvelles données sur les Ichnites de dinosaures d'El Bayadh (Crétacé Inférieur, Algérie)
Mostefa Bessedik, Cheikh Mammeri, Lahcene Belkebir, Mahammed Mahboubi, Mohamed Adaci, Hakim Hebib, Mustapha Bensalah, Bouhameur Mansour and Mohammed E. H. Mansouri
Keywords: Algeria; Brezina; El Bayadh; Ichnites; Lower Cretaceous; Sauropoids; Theropoids

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.7-35

    Evidence of 350 Lower Cretaceous Dinosaur footprints is pointed out in El Bayadh area. Their preliminary study allow to distinguish four trackway assemblages which reveal vertebrate bipedal presence forms of tri-and tetradactylous Dinosauroïds (Assemblages 1-3) and quadrupidal Sauropoïd (Assemblage 4).

    The analysis of their footprint biometric features will attribute the quadrupidal Sauropoïd form to Brontopodus ichnogenus which is weIl known in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. In retum and despite their age, the dinosauroïd forms were approached, temporarily, to Grallator and Eubrontes types.

    The occurrence of the dinosaur traces (Theropoïd and Sauropoïd) constitutes, in the Lower Cretaceous, an important first step of the knowlege of the marshy Reptilian fauna which takes over, from the begining of the Secondary Era, a wide paleogeographie area on the Southem Tethyan margin. 

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Fossil snakes from the Palaeocene of São José de Itaboraí, Brazil Part III. Ungaliophiinae, Booids incertae sedis, and Caenophidia. Summary, update and discussion of the snake fauna from the locality
Jean-Claude Rage
Keywords: booid-grade incertae sedis; Brazil; Caenophidia; New taxa; Palaeocene; Russellophiidae; Snakes; tropidophiids; Ungaliophiinae

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.37-73

    Aside from Madtsoiidae, anilioids, and Boidae that were studied previously, the middle Palaeocene of ltaborai (BraziI) has produced Ungaliophiinae ("tropidophiids"), booid-grade snakes incertae sedis, and a possible Russellophiidae (Caenophidia) that are described in the present article. This article is the third and final report on the snakes from the locality. The Ungaliophiinae (Paraungaliophis pricei gen. et sp. nov.) are rare whereas the booid-grade snakes incertae sedis (ltaboraiophis depressus gen. et sp. nov., Paulacoutophis perplexus gen. et sp. nov.) are more frequent. A single vertebra is referred to the Russellophiidae (Caenophidia) with reservation. An update of the whole fauna of snakes from ltaborai is provided. Hechtophis austrinus that was tentatively referred to the erycine Boidae is now regarded as a Boidae incertae sedis. Most snakes from Itaborai are known only from the locality. Astonishingly, only the ailioids Coniophis cf. C. precedens gives possible evidence of interchanges between South and North America. The fauna of snakes from Itaborai, as well as the other Palaeocene faunas of snakes from South America are distinct from those of the Cretaceous and the Eocene of South America; they appear to be more different from the Cretaceous faunas than from those of the Eocene. The fauna from Itaborai is the richest and most diverse assemblage of snakes from the Palaeocene worldwide; it shares only a few taxa with other Palaeocene localities. 

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Eggshell microstructure and porosity of the Nicobar scrubfowl (Megapodius Nicobariensis, great Nicobar island, India)
Géraldine Garcia, Ashu Khosla, Ashok Sahni and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: conductance porosity; eggshell microstructure; incubation conditions; Megapodes

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.75-88

    The eggshell of Nicobar scrubfowl (Megapodius nicobariensis) is described for the first time. Its egg porosity is calculated and discussed with data from several taxa (another megapode, some extant and fossil reptiles including a titanosaur group) in order to compare incubation types with eggshell structure. Eggshell microstructure reflects first phylogenetic traits and does not seem to have developed major adaptative features due to the incubation conditions, except for the pore canals. 

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A new study of the anthracotheres (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from pondaung formation, Myanmar: systematics implications
Aung N. Soe
Keywords: Anthracohyus; Anthracokeryx; Anthracotherium; Pondaung Formation; sexual dimorphism; Siamotherium; South East Asia; Taxonomy

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.89-157

    Anthracotheres from the Pondaung Formation, Myanmar, are considered as one of the most primitive artiodactyl groups and they represent the oldest known record in the world. Thus, the understanding of this group has numerous implications for evolutionary biology and biochronological correlations. However, the systematlcs of these mammals has been interpreted in different ways, and the main debate focuses on the number of taxa represented in the Pondaung Formation. The revised taxonomy proposed here is mainly based on the relative development of the upper molar W-shaped ectoloph, system of crests and stylar cusps, and on body size. On the basis of these characters, they are classified into four genera including six different species. Two well-known genera, Anthracotherium and Anthracokeryx, are validated and more precisely diagnosed. Anthracokeryx possesses a better developed W-shaped ectoloph, system of crests and stylar cusps than Anthracotherium, which displays notable differences with the more derived representatives of this genus. Both of these Pondaung genera show evidence for sexual dimorphism. However, the incompleteness of fossil material fueled a debate concerning the status of two additional Pondaung anthracotheres, Siamotherium and Anthracohyus. The latter genus is of uncertain affinities, but it has been considered as a hippopotamid ancestor. Despite new material attributed to these two forms, additional discoveries are still required to establish their taxonomic status. The hypothesis that Southeast Asia was the centre of origin of Anthracotheriidae is supported by the retention of numerous primitive dental characters in these taxa and by the antiquity of the Pondaung Formation, to which an age of 37 My is now generally accepted. 

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Old world hemiones and new world slender species (Mammalia, Equidae)
Véra Eisenmann, John Howe and Mario Pichardo
Keywords: Amerhippus; biometry; Equus; Holocene; New World; Old World; Osteology; Pleistocene; Pliocene

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.159-233

    Morphological and biometrical description of skulls, teeth, and limb bones of extant and fossil Old World herniones (including E. hydruntinus) and of New World 'stilt-Iegged' and other slender species from Blancan to Holocene. An Appendix presents ways in which the approximate size of some missing bones or dimensions may be deduced from available ones.

    The discussed and/or illustrated fossils were found in Bolivia (Tarija), Canada (Yukon), China (Choukoutien, Gulongshan, Jiling, Loufangzi), Ecuador (Oil Fields), Ethiopia (Melka Kunturé), France (Lunel-Viel), Germany (Süssenborn), Greece (Agios Georgios, Petralona), Hungary (Dorog), Italy (Romanelli), Mexico (Cedazo, San Josecito), Mongolia (Sjara-osso-gol), Spain (Venta Micena), ex-Soviet Union (Akhalkalaki, Binagady, Chokurcha, Chukochya, Kabazi, Kolyma, Krestovka, Kurtak, Staroselie, Tologoj), USA (Alaska, Arkalon, Cedar Meadow, Channing, Conkling, Dry Mountains, Hay Springs, Leisey Shell Pit A, Lissie Formation, Natural Trap, Pool Branch, Powers Ranch, Rock Creek, San Diego, Santo Domingo, Seymour Formation, Shelter, Slaton, Trinity River). Numerous raw or statistically elaborated data are given in Tables.

    There is no evidence for the existence of Old World hemiones in the New World nor of 'stilt-Iegged' equids in the Old World. The first 'stilt-Iegged' equid was found at Santo Domingo, New Mexico, and is believed to be Late Blancan. It was probably at the origin of E. calobatus (Arkalon, Rock Creek) and of the smaller E. semiplicatus (Channing, Rock Creek). Slender, but not 'stilt-Iegged', equids found at Natural Trap, Wyoming, ca. 12 ky ago belong to Amerhippus. AlI these species share with Oid World Sussemiones (and some hemiones) peculiar patterns on the lower cheek teeth.

    The slender Equus sp. B of Leisey Pit A, Florida, ca. 1.2 Ma, as weIl as Amerhippus francisci and E. tau (probably a senior synonym of E. quinni) share conventional lower cheek teeth patterns. The skulls of A. francisci and E. tau, however, are quite different.

    Paleontological data suggest a common origin of Amerhippus, Sussemiones, and 'stilt-Iegged' equids during the late Blancan. Old World hemiones seem to have differentiated later. 

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