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Fossil snakes from the Palaeocene of São José de Itaboraí, Brazil Part III. Ungaliophiinae, Booids incertae sedis, and Caenophidia. Summary, update and discussion of the snake fauna from the locality
Jean-Claude Rage
Keywords: booid-grade incertae sedis; Brazil; Caenophidia; New taxa; Palaeocene; Russellophiidae; Snakes; tropidophiids; Ungaliophiinae

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.37-73
 
  Abstract

    Aside from Madtsoiidae, anilioids, and Boidae that were studied previously, the middle Palaeocene of ltaborai (BraziI) has produced Ungaliophiinae ("tropidophiids"), booid-grade snakes incertae sedis, and a possible Russellophiidae (Caenophidia) that are described in the present article. This article is the third and final report on the snakes from the locality. The Ungaliophiinae (Paraungaliophis pricei gen. et sp. nov.) are rare whereas the booid-grade snakes incertae sedis (ltaboraiophis depressus gen. et sp. nov., Paulacoutophis perplexus gen. et sp. nov.) are more frequent. A single vertebra is referred to the Russellophiidae (Caenophidia) with reservation. An update of the whole fauna of snakes from ltaborai is provided. Hechtophis austrinus that was tentatively referred to the erycine Boidae is now regarded as a Boidae incertae sedis. Most snakes from Itaborai are known only from the locality. Astonishingly, only the ailioids Coniophis cf. C. precedens gives possible evidence of interchanges between South and North America. The fauna of snakes from Itaborai, as well as the other Palaeocene faunas of snakes from South America are distinct from those of the Cretaceous and the Eocene of South America; they appear to be more different from the Cretaceous faunas than from those of the Eocene. The fauna from Itaborai is the richest and most diverse assemblage of snakes from the Palaeocene worldwide; it shares only a few taxa with other Palaeocene localities. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4 (2008)

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Fossil snakes from the Palaeocene of Sao José de Itaborai, Brazil, Part II. Boidae
Jean-Claude Rage
Keywords: Boidae; Boinae; Brazil; Erycinae; New taxa; Palaeocene; Snakes
 
  Abstract

    The middle Palaeocene of São José de ltaboraí (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) has produced a rich and diverse fauna of boid snakes. It comprises six or seven species: Hechtophis austrinus gen. et sp. nov., Corallus priscus sp. nov., Waincophís pressulus sp. nov., Waincophis cameratus sp. nov.,"Boinae A", and "Boinae B". Moreover, two dentaries might pertain to either H. austrinus or "Boinae B", or even represent a distinct taxon. Hechtophis austrinus is assigned, with reservation, to the Erycinae. All other taxa are referred to the Boinae. The vertebrae of all taxa have paracotylar foramina, which raises the problem of the apomorphic or plesiomorphic nature of this feature. This fauna also raises the question of the presence of extinct erycine boids in South America, but it does not allow this question to be settled. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 30, Fasc. 3-4 (2001)

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Fossil snakes from the Palaeocene of Sao José de Itaborai, Brazil.Part 1 Madtsoiidae, Aniliidae.
Jean-Claude Rage
Keywords: Aniliidae s.l.; Brazil; Coniophis; Hoffstetterella; Madtsoia; Madtsoiidae; middle Palaeocene; New taxa; Snakes
 
  Abstract

    The middle Palaeocene of São José de Itaboraí (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) has yielded a very rich and diverse snake fauna which includes Madtsoiidae, Aniliidae s.l., Boidae, Tropidophiidae s.l., Booidea incertae sedis, and Russellophiidae. The present article (part I) deals with Madtsoiidae and Aniliidae s.l. Madtsoiidae are represented by many vertebrae and a few skull bones. They comprise one new species assigned to the genus Madtsoia (M. camposi sp. nov.). However, the definition of the genus Madtsoia is unsatisfactory and the generic allocation might be provisional. A few elements, vertebrae only, belong to the Aniliidae s. l. Two taxa are referred to this latter group: Coniophis cf. C. precedens and Hoffstetterella brasiliensis gen. et sp. nov. The forthcoming part II will deal with Boidae.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 27, Fasc. 3-4 (1998)

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Evolution et extinction des reptiles marins au cours du Mésozoïque.
Nathalie Bardet
Keywords: Crocodiles; evolution; Extinctions; faunal assemblages; Helveticosaurs; Hupehsuchians; Ichthyoaurs; lizards; Marine Reptiles; Mesozoic; Nothosaurs; Pachypleurosaurs; Placodonts; Plesiosaurs; Snakes; Thalattosaurs; Turnovers; Turtles
 
  Abstract

    An interpretation of the marine reptile fossil record, based on the existing litterature and complemented by the review of ancient collections and the study of new material, permits a better understanding of Mesozoic marine ecosystems. An inventory of the marine reptiles known from the Lower Triassic to the Paleocene is presented: 46 families, about 200 genera and 400 species have been recorded. This data base includes commentaries about systematics, stratigraphical ranges and geographical distribution of taxa. Marine reptiles include a mosaic of not necessarily closely related groups: ichthyosaurs, thalattosaurs, hupehsuchians, pachypleurosaurs, placodonts, nothosaurs, plesiosaurs, pliosaurs but also crocodiles, lizards, snakes, turtles. The diversity studies reveal that the fossil record of marine reptiles has been punctuated by two mass extinctions, during the Middle-Upper Triassic transition and at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The Jurassic-Cretaceous and Cenomanian-Turonian boundaries (the latter marked by the disappearance of ichthyosaurs) are potential crisis periods, but current data are not sufficient to reach conclusions. The Ladinian-Carnian transition is characterized by the disappearance of 64 % of families and affects essentially coastal forms. This extinction coincides with an important regressive phase. During the Upper Triassic, a faunal reorganisation within marine reptiles leads to the progressive disappearance of near-shore forms and to the development of pelagic groups. During the Maastrichtian-Danian crisis, 36% of families died out. Large-sized pelagic forms such as mosasaurs and elasmosaurs were the most affected and their extinction seems to have been rather sudden. On the other hand, pliosaurs and protostegid turtles became extinct, but were already declining. The survivors were near-shore forms such as crocodiles, snakes and some turtles and they may have taken refuge in freshwater environments. A break in the food chain based on phytoplankton is proposed as an extinction scenario for pelagic forms.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 24, Fasc. 3-4 (1995)

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