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A new study of the anthracotheres (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from pondaung formation, Myanmar: systematics implications
Aung N. Soe
Keywords: Anthracohyus; Anthracokeryx; Anthracotherium; Pondaung Formation; sexual dimorphism; Siamotherium; South East Asia; Taxonomy

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.89-157
 
  Abstract

    Anthracotheres from the Pondaung Formation, Myanmar, are considered as one of the most primitive artiodactyl groups and they represent the oldest known record in the world. Thus, the understanding of this group has numerous implications for evolutionary biology and biochronological correlations. However, the systematlcs of these mammals has been interpreted in different ways, and the main debate focuses on the number of taxa represented in the Pondaung Formation. The revised taxonomy proposed here is mainly based on the relative development of the upper molar W-shaped ectoloph, system of crests and stylar cusps, and on body size. On the basis of these characters, they are classified into four genera including six different species. Two well-known genera, Anthracotherium and Anthracokeryx, are validated and more precisely diagnosed. Anthracokeryx possesses a better developed W-shaped ectoloph, system of crests and stylar cusps than Anthracotherium, which displays notable differences with the more derived representatives of this genus. Both of these Pondaung genera show evidence for sexual dimorphism. However, the incompleteness of fossil material fueled a debate concerning the status of two additional Pondaung anthracotheres, Siamotherium and Anthracohyus. The latter genus is of uncertain affinities, but it has been considered as a hippopotamid ancestor. Despite new material attributed to these two forms, additional discoveries are still required to establish their taxonomic status. The hypothesis that Southeast Asia was the centre of origin of Anthracotheriidae is supported by the retention of numerous primitive dental characters in these taxa and by the antiquity of the Pondaung Formation, to which an age of 37 My is now generally accepted. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4 (2008)

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Mammals of the Eocene locality Toru Ajgyr (Kyrgyzstan)
Jorg Erfurt and Alexander Averianov
Keywords: Eocene; Kyrgyzstan; Mammalia; Olsenia; Palaeoecology; Stratigraphy; Taxonomy
 
  Abstract

    Morphological descriptions are given of Eocene mammals from the locality Toru Ajgyr (NEKyrgyzstan) that were excavated in 1997 and 1998 in a cooperation between the Martin-Luther-University Halle (Germany), the Zoological Institute in St. Petersburg (Russia) and the Seismological Institute in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). The species found belong mostly to perissodactyls, as Lophialetes sp., Teleolophus sp. and brontotheres. The primitive ungulate family Olseniidae is represented by a complete foot skeleton of cf. Olsenia sp. In addition, postcranial materials of Gobiatherium mirificum (Dinocerata) and of artiodactyls have been collected and are described herein. Based on mammals, the locality is part of the Asian Land Mammal Age Arshantan and is stratigraphically equivalent with the Bridgerian Land Mammal Age in North America and with the lower and middle Geiseltalian of the European Middle Eocene. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 34, Fasc. 3-4 (2006)

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Diversity among north african dinosaur eggshells.
Monique Vianey-Liaud and Géraldine Garcia
Keywords: Cretaceous; Dinosaurs diversity; Eggshells; Maastrichtian; Morocco; North Africa; Taxonomy
 
  Abstract

    Until the discovery of dinosaur eggshells locality in the Oukdiksou syncline, (Middle Atlas, Morocco) in 1999 (Garcia et al. this volume) the maastrichtian reptiles faunas were unknown in North Africa. Additional material from Achlouj-2 allows us to describe five oospecies, belonging to four oofamilies. The Megaloolithidae is recorded by Megaloolithus maghrebiellsis Garcia el al. and Pseudomegaloolithus atlasi oogen. novo oospec. nov. Tipoolithus achloujensis Garcia et al. is questionably considered as a Subtiliolithidae. A relatively small Elongatoloolithidae is represented by Rodolphoolithus arioul oogen. nov. oospec. nov. A thin Prismatoolithidae is described as a new oospecies of ? Pseudogeckoolithus Vianey-Liaud & Lopez-Martinez, 1997: P. tirboulensis. The diversity of these oospecies indicates that the dinosaur fauna comprises at least five dinosaur oospecies, with perhaps one sauropod and three theropods. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 32, Fasc. 2-4 (2003)

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Pairomys et Ectropomys : la fin d'une ambiguïté ; mise au point sur les Oltinomyinae et Remyinae (Rodenia, Theridomyidae).
Monique Vianey-Liaud, Norbert Schmidt-Kittler and Pablo Pelaez-Campomanes
Keywords: Phylogeny; Taxonomy; Theridomyidae; Upper Eocene
 
  Abstract

    The description of new material of the Upper Eoœne of France, Southem Germany and Spain together with the restudy of the material described by Thaler (1966b) as Pairomys allows to confirm the validity of the genus Ectropomys up to know controversally discussed. As a consequence the subfamily Remyinae and Oltinomyinae can be defined precisely. The study of the dental characters shows that the Remyinae in fact belong to the Theridomyidae and represent a derived evolutionary unit within this family. The Oltinomyinae together with the Theridomyinae and Issiodoromyinae very probably form a monophyletic unit. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 23, Fasc. 1-4 (1994)

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Artiodactyla aus den Eozänen Braunkohlen des Geiseltales bei Halle (DDR)
Jorg Erfurt and Hartmut Haubold
Keywords: Artiodactyles; Eocene; Europe; Paleoecology; Stratigraphy; Taxonomy
 
  Abstract

    The present study of Artiodactyla from the Middle Eocene of the Geiseltal lignite beds concems systematics, biostratigraphy, and palaeoecology on the basis of 174 specimens: isolated remains to more complete skeletons. Instead of the formerly known five species of two families are now recognized 14 species of the Diacodexeidae, Dichobunidae, Cebochoeridae, and Haplobunodontidae. New species are Aumelasia maniai, Anthracobunodon neumarkensis, Masillabune franzeni. Four species of the Geiseltalfauna are definitely known from elswere, and five species are closely related to those from other European localities. Evidently the faunal situation of artiodactyls during the Middle Eocene of Europe was largely uniform. The distribution of artiodactyls within the sequence of the Geiseltal strata corroborates the biostratigraphical concept of the land mammal age Geiseltalian (Franzen & Haubold l986b) as well as the mammalian reference levels MP 11-13 (Franzen 1987). Reconstructions of the skulls and skeletons allow conclusions on the functional morphology and palaeoecology of the artiodactyls of the European Middle Eocene 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 3 (1989)

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Sur le statut taxonomique de Myotis KAUP 1829 (Mammalia, Chiroptera).
Henri Menu
Keywords: Myotis; Taxonomy
 
  Abstract

    Suite à la récente publication d'une révision systématique des Chiroptera Vespertilioninae, conduite sur la base des morphologies dentaires comparées (Menu 1987), une remarque bienveillante du Dr. V. Aellen (Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Genève) a attiré l'attention de l'auteur sur un point précis du Code International de Nomenclature Zoologique. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Fasc. 4 (1988)

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Revision der Equoidea aus den Eozänen Braunkohlen des Geiseltales bel Halle (DDR).
Jens L. Franzen and Hartmut Haubold
Keywords: Eocene; Europe; Mammalia; Perissodactyla; Stratigraphy; Taxonomy
 
  Abstract

    The dentitions as well as one complete and several partial skeletons of Equoids from the Eocene lignite beds of the Geiseltal locality are revised. Instead of 13 species distinguished up to now 3 chronoclines with 5 species and 3 separate species are recognized (text. fig. 1). Propalaeotherium hassiacum HAUPT, 1925 is evolving into Propalaeotherium isselanum (CUVIER, 1824) between the levels of the « obere Unterkohle ›› and the « untere Mittelkohle ›› of the Geiseltal section. Propalaeotherium argentonicum GERVAIS, 1849 is shown to be present in the « untere Unterkohle ››, whereas Lophiotherium pygmaeum (DEPERET,1901) occurs in the « obere Mittelkohle ›› and in the « oberes Hauptmittel ››. Plagiolophus cartieri STEHLIN, 1904 appears during the transition from the « Mittelkohle ›› into the « Oberkohle ›› as the earliest true Palaeothere. Therefore the « Oberkohle ›› is already regarded as Upper Eocene. This is corroborated by the occurrence of a phyletic descendant of Propalaeatherium parvulum (Propalaeotherium n.sp.) in the middle and upper "Oberkohle " because this species appears otherwise for the first time at the mammal level of Lissieu. On the other hand Propachynolophus gaudryz (LEMOINE, 1878) described by Matthes (1977) from the « untere Unterkohle ›› turns out te be in fact a Phenacodont. Thus the decisive argument for classifying the « untere Unterkohle ›› as Lower Eocene has to be dropped. Biostratigraphically the « Unterkohle ›› and the «Basishauptrnittel ›› correspond with the lower Middle Eocene (mammal level of Messel), whereas the «unteres Hauptmittel ›› and the « untere Mittelkohle ›› are equivalent to the middle part of the middle Eocene (mammal level of lssel), and the « obere Mittelkohle ›› together with the « oberes Hauptmittel ›› coincide with the upper Middle Eocene (mammal level of Bouxwiller). 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 1 (1986)

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Ein neuer condylarthre und ein tillodontier (Mammalia) aus dem Mitteleozän des Geiseltales.
Jens L. Franzen and Hartmut Haubold
Keywords: Condylarthra; Eocene; Europe; Mammalia; Taxonomy; Tillodontia
 
  Abstract

    In the course of a revision of the Equoidea numerous dentitions as well as a partial skeleton of a Phenaeodont were discovered from the Middle Eocene lignite beds of the Geiseltal locality. These fossils are recognized as a new genus and species of Phenacodontidae : HaIlensia matthesi n.g. n.sp.. The species is present in the « untere und obere Unterkohle ›› (uUK, oUK = the lower and upper part of the Lower Coal Seam) as well as in the « obere Mittelkohle ›› (oMK = the upper part of the Middle Coal Seam). Two fragmentary upper jaws described and figured by Matthes (1977) as Propachynolophus gaudryi are also belonging to Hallensia matthesi. Thus the decisive argument for classifying the " Unterkohle " of the Geiseltal section as Lower Eocene has to be dropped. Another relict form of the Geiseltal is Esthonyx tardus n. sp. documented by a fragmentary mandible coming from the « untere Unterkohle ››. This is the latest Tillodont from Europe. Contrasting to E. munieri from the european Lower Eocene the dentition of E. tardus is morphologically more progressive. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 1 (1986)

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