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December 2016
Vol.40-2
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A new species of Propalaeotherium (Palaeotheriidae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Middle Eocene locality of Aumelas (Hérault, France).
Jean-Albert Remy, Gabriel Krasovec and Bernard Marandat
Keywords: Eocene; new species; Palaeotheriidae; Propalaeotherium

doi: 10.18563/pv.40.2.e1
 
  Abstract

    A new Propalaeotherium species, clearly distinct from the genus Eurohippus, is described. It is characterized by having a similar size as P. voigti from the German Geiseltal localities (MP 11 to MP 13 reference-level), but differs in several features suggesting a slighty more derived morphology. It presents indeed less brachyodont crowns with less prominent and less elevated cingula, slightly larger relative surface of premolars, and a more marked metaconid splitting on cheek teeth. This new species is unknown from other European localities except the nearby Saint-Martin de Londres locality which has been considered older than the MP 13 level. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol.40-2 (2016)

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Les Périssodactyles (Mammalia) du gisement Bartonien supérieur de Robiac (Éocène moyen du Gard, Sud de la France)
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: Chasmotherium; new species; Palaeotheriidae; paleoenvironments

doi: 10.18563/pv.39.1.e3
 
  Abstract

    We present here a new updated counting of the perissodactyls of Robiac, the type locality of the MP 16 level of the biochronological scale of paleogene mammals and that of the Robiacian stage of Eocene Land Mammals Ages in Western Europe.
    The outcrop of Robiac consists actually of two 500m apart loci, Robiac-Nord and Robiac-Sud, considered of the same age according to the current discriminating power, and is dated from -38,7 MA after the last faunal, magnetostratigraphic and climatic calibrations.
    It has yielded a very abundant and rich of 21 taxa perissodactyl fauna, topped by the giant Lophiodon lautricense, last representative of the family Lophiodontidae, of which it is the last proved deposit. The Palaeotheriidae are much diversified with 5 genera and 9 species of "Pachynolophinae", 3 genera and 10 species of Palaeotheriinae. Nine taxa have been defined from Robiac: Chasmotherium depereti n. sp., Palaeotherium castrense robiacense Franzen, 1968, the genus Leptolophus Remy, 1965 with the species L. stehlini Remy, 1965 and L. magnus Remy, 1998, Anchilophus (Paranchilophus) jeanteti Remy, 2012, Metanchilophus chaubeti Remy, 2012, Lophiotherium robiacense Depéret, 1917 and Pachynolophus gaytei n. sp.
    The faunal Robiac cenogram with the associated flora testify to a hot, wet and forestal environment, likely corresponding to a short warming climatic phase; the broken up fossil bones should have been carried away and then gathered in swamp areas along the banks of a meandering river.
    The swarm of mammals of Robiac, the richest of contemporaneous deposits, has been followed by a drastic drop in perissodactyl diversity at the MP 17A level; a crisis which could have originated in a renewal of the global Eocene cooling. Fons 4, the type-locality of this level, is largely scarcer in perissodactyls and its cenogram testifies to a less diversified fauna, with on the whole smaller species, that likely means a cooler and drier climatic environment; a new perissodactyl diversification occurred but later.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol.39-1 (2015)

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Révision systématique des Anchilophini (Palaeotheriidae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia).
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: Anchilophus; Eocene; New genus; new species; Palaeotheriidae; Paranchilophus; Perissodactyla; systematics

doi: 10.18563/pv.37.1-3.1-165
 
  Abstract

    The knowledge of the Anchilophini has been lately renewed by the discovery of a rather large amount of new material still largely unpublished. This new material offers the opportunity of a systematic revision of this tribe gathering those of European Eocene Equoidea which bear no mesostyle on upper check teeth and display a heavy trend to the molarization of premolars.

    A cladistic analysis has made out two genera, Anchilophus (Paranchilophus included as a subgenus), characterized by a marked lophodonty and the transverse narrowness of the cheek teeth, a rather high hypsodonty, the frequent occurrence of "crochets" and "anticrochets" on the superior ones, and a rather weak molarization of the premolars, opposite to Metanchilophus n. gen. whose cheek teeth are more transversally elongated, less high, less lophodont, with cusps better distinct, enamel thicker and premolars more molarized on the whole.

    Three species of Anchilophus are recognized, A. desmaresti, type species of the genus, A. (Paranchilophus) remyi and A. (Paranchilophus) jeanteli n. sp.

    The genus Metanchilophus is more diversified with the species dumasi, radegondensis, gaudini (whose a new sub-species M. g. fontensis is defined), depereli, castrensis n. sp. and chaubeti n. sp.

    The skull anatomy has been moreover described with several taxa; it brings to light (for all that one can generalize) that Anchilophini were light animals with a slender and elongated snout, a thin zygomatic arch, a rather developed encephalon with an advanced gyrencephaly.

    The structure of the nasal opening together with the occurrence of epitympanic sinuses and the molarizing process of the premolars corroborate the attribution of this tribe to the family PalaeotheIiidae. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 37, Fasc. 1-3 (2012)

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Un nouveau genre de ?Palaeotheriidae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) décelé dans les phosphorites du Quercy (Eocène supérieur ou Oligocène) d'après un arrière crâne sans dents.
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: endocranial cast; Epitympanic sinus; Palaeotheriidae; Paleogene; Quercy phosphorites; skull anatomy
 
  Abstract

    A rear skull from the Quercy Phosphorites is described. It documents a new perissodactyl genus, likely assignable to the family Palaeotheriidae and probably paleogene of age. Owing to the lack of any tooth, this family assignment remains however somewhat hypothetical. The specimen is firstly characterised by the presence of a wide epitympanic sinus swelling and hollowing the squamosal shell and the post-glenoid process. This cavity might make up a peculiar pattern of improvement for the hearing apparatus by carrying out a kind of drum near the middle ear, whereas the bony tympanic remains barely bulged and forms but a few developed auditory bulla. This pattern appears an outcome of a trend observed with many palaeotheriids, such as Plagiolophus. Furthermore, the endocranial cast shows a rather high degree of gyrencephaly for a paleogene mammal. The prominent lambdoidal crest points out a powerful nape musculature and a lowered head bearing. Consequently, it is assumed that such an animal was probably living in somewhat open places, at the expense of rather tough vegetables. It might have been accordingly provided with a semi-hypsodont, cement covered, "plagiolophoid" dentition. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 28, Fasc. 1 (1999)

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Le genre Leptolophus (Perissodactyla, Mammalia): morphologie et histologie dentaires, anatomie cranienne, implications fonctionnelles.
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: dental histology; Eocene; functional anatomy; Palaeotheriidae; skull anatomy; Southern France; systematics
 
  Abstract

    A strong lophodonty, an extreme heterodonty, some hypsodonty and regular overlayings of coronal cement are prominent features of the genus Leptolophus (Palaeotheriinae = Palaeotheriidae s.s.). The histological pattern of the teeth unusually joins type II enamel prisms, characteristic of advanced ungulates, together with archaic features, such as an almost complete lack of Hunter-Schreger zonation and a weak expanse of peritubular dentine. The skull is narrow and slender, with an elongated ante-orbital facial region, a moderately notched nasal aperture, a rather elongated post-canine diastem, parallel zygornatic arches and a fairly dorsally located squamoso-mandibular joint.The functional analysis brings to light "ectolophodont" masticatory cycles with two phases, in which maximum power was applied, contrary to equíds, on hindmost teeth; likewise, skull accomodations to increasing height of the teeth are quite different. This study leads to the assumption that Leptolophus may have been light mammals, living in rather open surroundings, browsing on herbaceous plants or leaves cropped close to the ground. Moreover, it appears that it could have been some inadequacy of dental structures to the dietary, which leaded to quick wear of the teeth and to many enamel notches, but had been somewhat balanced by the early increase of hypsodonty, not induced in such a case by a biotop deterioration (as it will happen at the end of the Eocene). This ínadaptation might account for the short duration of the genus Leptolophus, whose the 3 species, L. stehlini, L. nouletí and L. magnus n. sp. are indeed confined in the level MP 16. Its geographical spreading (as far as known, South of western Europe) and the morphological pattern of its dentition suggest that this genus would have been related to early upper Eocene endemic spanish forms.





      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 27, Fasc. 1-2 (1998)

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Les Palaeotheridae (Perissodactyla) de la faune de Mammifères de Fons 1 (Eocène supérieur).
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: Anchilophus; Eocene; Pachynolophus; Palaeotheriidae; Perissodactyla

doi: 10.18563/pv.1.1.1-46
 
  Abstract

    The locality of Fons 1, one of the fossiliferous outcrops in the late Eocene limestones of Fons-outre-Gardon (Gard), has yielded varied remains of mammals. The specimens were prepared by dilute acetic acid attack on the rock and by impregnation with an acrylic resin.
    This fauna, rich with about 20 species, can be included in the biochronologic zone of Euzet. The Palaeotheridae (sensu Simpson 1945), represented by 6 species, occupy a predominant place; Plagiolophus annectens is particularly abundant, comprising 55% of all the specimens found.
    The abundance of this species has permitted a detailed comparative study with the corresponding form from Euzet. The quantitative tests brought out a slight but highly sígnificant difference between the average dimensions of the teeth in the two populations. Moreover and in spite of the feeble rate of evolution in the Plagialophus dentition, diverse archaic particularities can be seen which permit the conclusion that the form from Fons 1 is a little the older. This conclusion is corroborated by observations on the other palaeotherids, particularly Lophiotherium aff. cervulum, whose dental evolutionary stage is intermediate between those of the corresponding forms known from Robiac and Euzet.
    A new species of Pachynolophus is described, P. garimondi n.sp., the last representative known of the genus. lts teeth are distinguished by their size, a great heterodonty, and the weakness
    of their cingula. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 01, Fasc. 1 (1967)

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