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Repartition et dynamisme des faunes de Lacertilia et d'Amphisbaenia dans l'Eocène Europe
Marc Augé
Keywords: Amphisbaenia; Climate; Endemism; Eocene; Europe; Lacertilia; Metabolism
 
  Abstract

    The composition of assemblages of lizards and Amphisbaenian from the European Eocene are described. At least ten lizard families are identified from the lower European Eocene levels. Eight are still recorded in the last level (Escamps) of the late Eocene. Agamid lizards (genus Tinosaurus) died out by the end of the lower Eocene and Varanid lizards (genus Saniwa) disappeared by the beginning of the late Eocene. Amphisbaenians are recorded throughout the Eocene in Europe. The lacertilian fossil record of Europe and North America show a high degree of faunal resemblance in the early Eocene, followed by a decrease during the later part of the epoch. The lacertilian and amphisbaenian faunas from the European Eocene are not subject to great variations during the period; this is in contrast with the mammal record at the same time. It is argued that the low metabolic rates and the ectothermy of lizards could explain those differences, along with the increasing insularity of the West European area during the late Eocene time.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 22, Fasc. 2-3 (1993)

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Un nouveau chiroptère vespertilionide de l'Oligocène d'Europe
Bernard Sigé and Henri Menu
Keywords: bats; Europe; nov. sp.; Oligocene; Vespertilionid
 
  Abstract

    A fossil species of the extant genus Leuconoe, L. lavocati n. sp. from Le Garouillas Oligocene locality, Quercy phosphorites, SW-France, is established in nomenclatural standards. 


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Published in Vol. 22, Fasc. 1 (1992)

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Artiodactyla aus den Eozänen Braunkohlen des Geiseltales bei Halle (DDR)
Jorg Erfurt and Hartmut Haubold
Keywords: Artiodactyles; Eocene; Europe; Paleoecology; Stratigraphy; Taxonomy
 
  Abstract

    The present study of Artiodactyla from the Middle Eocene of the Geiseltal lignite beds concems systematics, biostratigraphy, and palaeoecology on the basis of 174 specimens: isolated remains to more complete skeletons. Instead of the formerly known five species of two families are now recognized 14 species of the Diacodexeidae, Dichobunidae, Cebochoeridae, and Haplobunodontidae. New species are Aumelasia maniai, Anthracobunodon neumarkensis, Masillabune franzeni. Four species of the Geiseltalfauna are definitely known from elswere, and five species are closely related to those from other European localities. Evidently the faunal situation of artiodactyls during the Middle Eocene of Europe was largely uniform. The distribution of artiodactyls within the sequence of the Geiseltal strata corroborates the biostratigraphical concept of the land mammal age Geiseltalian (Franzen & Haubold l986b) as well as the mammalian reference levels MP 11-13 (Franzen 1987). Reconstructions of the skulls and skeletons allow conclusions on the functional morphology and palaeoecology of the artiodactyls of the European Middle Eocene 


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Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 3 (1989)

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Les Amphibiens et les reptiles du Pliocène supérieur de Balaruc II (Herault, France)
Salvador Bailon
Keywords: Amphibians; Europe; France; Pliocene; Reptiles
 
  Abstract

    The late Pliocene site (MN 16) of Balaruc II (Hérault, France) has provided remains of the following amphibians and reptiles: Chelotriton pliocenicus nov. sp. and Triturus marmoratus (Salamandridae), cf. Rana (Ranidae), cf. Blanus (Amphisbaenidae), cf. Agama (Agamidae),  Gekkonidae indet., Lacerta s.l. (Lacertidae), "Ophisaurus" sp. (Anguidae), Michauxophis occitanus (Aniliidae), Erycinae indet. (Boidae), Elaphe cf. E. longissima and Malpolon sp. (Colubridae), cf. Naja (Elapidae) and Vipera sp. (Viperidae). The salamandrid Chelotriton pliocenicus and the aniliid Michauxophis occitanus constitute, up to now, the only records of these groups in the European Pliocene. The fauna is indicative of a warm, dry
    subtropical climate. 


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Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 1 (1989)

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Première occurrence d'un mégachiroptère ptéropodidé dans le Miocène moyen d'Europe (Gisement de Lo Fournas-II, Pyrénées-Orientales, France).
Jean-Pierre Aguilar, Marc Calvet, Jean-Yves Crochet, Serge Legendre, Jacques Michaux and Bernard Sigé
Keywords: Europe; First occurence; Megachiroptera; Middle Miocene; Teeth
 
  Abstract

    A lot of isolated teeth of a pteropodid fruit bat has been recently found within an assemblage of micromammals recovered from a karstic fissure filling named Lo Fournas-Il near the locality of Baixas (Pyrénées-Orientales, France). The fauna is Middle Miocene Serravallian age. The fossil fruit bat appears morphologically close to Rousettus; its size is that of a recent medium-sized fruit bat. While the fruit bats are very poorly known as fossils, this discovery shows that one of their recent types of dentitions was perfectly established by Middle Miocene times, and supports the presumed long geologic story of the suborder. One of the major invasions of the Old World fruit bats, supposed originated from SE Asia, reached up to Europe. A suborder unit is added to the miocene fauna of this continent. 


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Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 3 (1986)

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Revision der Equoidea aus den Eozänen Braunkohlen des Geiseltales bel Halle (DDR).
Jens L. Franzen and Hartmut Haubold
Keywords: Eocene; Europe; Mammalia; Perissodactyla; Stratigraphy; Taxonomy
 
  Abstract

    The dentitions as well as one complete and several partial skeletons of Equoids from the Eocene lignite beds of the Geiseltal locality are revised. Instead of 13 species distinguished up to now 3 chronoclines with 5 species and 3 separate species are recognized (text. fig. 1). Propalaeotherium hassiacum HAUPT, 1925 is evolving into Propalaeotherium isselanum (CUVIER, 1824) between the levels of the « obere Unterkohle ›› and the « untere Mittelkohle ›› of the Geiseltal section. Propalaeotherium argentonicum GERVAIS, 1849 is shown to be present in the « untere Unterkohle ››, whereas Lophiotherium pygmaeum (DEPERET,1901) occurs in the « obere Mittelkohle ›› and in the « oberes Hauptmittel ››. Plagiolophus cartieri STEHLIN, 1904 appears during the transition from the « Mittelkohle ›› into the « Oberkohle ›› as the earliest true Palaeothere. Therefore the « Oberkohle ›› is already regarded as Upper Eocene. This is corroborated by the occurrence of a phyletic descendant of Propalaeatherium parvulum (Propalaeotherium n.sp.) in the middle and upper "Oberkohle " because this species appears otherwise for the first time at the mammal level of Lissieu. On the other hand Propachynolophus gaudryz (LEMOINE, 1878) described by Matthes (1977) from the « untere Unterkohle ›› turns out te be in fact a Phenacodont. Thus the decisive argument for classifying the « untere Unterkohle ›› as Lower Eocene has to be dropped. Biostratigraphically the « Unterkohle ›› and the «Basishauptrnittel ›› correspond with the lower Middle Eocene (mammal level of Messel), whereas the «unteres Hauptmittel ›› and the « untere Mittelkohle ›› are equivalent to the middle part of the middle Eocene (mammal level of lssel), and the « obere Mittelkohle ›› together with the « oberes Hauptmittel ›› coincide with the upper Middle Eocene (mammal level of Bouxwiller). 


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Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 1 (1986)

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Ein neuer condylarthre und ein tillodontier (Mammalia) aus dem Mitteleozän des Geiseltales.
Jens L. Franzen and Hartmut Haubold
Keywords: Condylarthra; Eocene; Europe; Mammalia; Taxonomy; Tillodontia
 
  Abstract

    In the course of a revision of the Equoidea numerous dentitions as well as a partial skeleton of a Phenaeodont were discovered from the Middle Eocene lignite beds of the Geiseltal locality. These fossils are recognized as a new genus and species of Phenacodontidae : HaIlensia matthesi n.g. n.sp.. The species is present in the « untere und obere Unterkohle ›› (uUK, oUK = the lower and upper part of the Lower Coal Seam) as well as in the « obere Mittelkohle ›› (oMK = the upper part of the Middle Coal Seam). Two fragmentary upper jaws described and figured by Matthes (1977) as Propachynolophus gaudryi are also belonging to Hallensia matthesi. Thus the decisive argument for classifying the " Unterkohle " of the Geiseltal section as Lower Eocene has to be dropped. Another relict form of the Geiseltal is Esthonyx tardus n. sp. documented by a fragmentary mandible coming from the « untere Unterkohle ››. This is the latest Tillodont from Europe. Contrasting to E. munieri from the european Lower Eocene the dentition of E. tardus is morphologically more progressive. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 1 (1986)

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Mammals and stratigraphy : the Paleocene of Europe
Donald E. Russell, Jean-Louis Hartenberger, Charles Pomerol, Sevket Sen, Norbert Schmidt-Kittler and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Europe; Mammalia; Mammalian biochronology; Paleogene; Stratigraphy
 
  Abstract

    The mammalian faunas of the Paleogene of Europe and their localities are reviewed with comments on problems of European stratigraphy (epoch, stage and substage limits) and on the possibilities of faunal migrations. Radiometric dating is discussed. A stratigraphic scale for the Paleogene is presented, as well as a refined system of sequential faunal levels. 


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Published in Vol. 12, Ext (1982)

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Etude paléoneurologique comparative de Parabos Cordieri (De Christol), un bovidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) du Pliocène d'Europe Occidentale.
Catherine Gromolard
Keywords: Bovidae; endocranial cast; Europe; Pliocene
 
  Abstract

    A skull of Parabos cordieri, undamaged by fossilisation, allows us to make an endocranial cast, which is compared to those of Bos taurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus and Hippotragus equinus. These are studied by general form (shape, volume, « rolling-up›› and inclination), and by detailed morphology (gyri and sulci patterns, rete mirabile, importance of rhinencephalon and cerebellum).
    A preliminary study is made in order to recognize convolution topography, gyri, sulci, and the various encephalic regions as clearly on an endocranial cast as on a bare encephalon; an intermediate stage is the study of an encephalon covered with «soft» meninges.
    The comparative study reveals great similarity between the endocranial cast of Parabos cordieri and that of Boselaphus tragocamelus, both belonging to the tribe Boselaphini. On the other hand, a marked differences separates the cast of Parabos cordieri from that of Bos taurus, representing the tribe Bovini to which Parabos cordieri had been referred. The endocranial cast of Hippotragus equinus, which had long been considered the descendant of Parabos cordieri, is also quite different from that of Parabos


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Published in Vol. 12, Fasc. 2 (1982)

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Evolution des Aplodontidae Oligocènes Européens
Norbert Schmidt-Kittler and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Aplodontidae; Europe; Oligocene
 
  Abstract

    Until now Aplodontidae of the European Oligocene have been documented by four species only. The phylogenetic relations remained obscure. as the distribution of only one species has been known in some detail. New material made it possible to define the stratigraphic range of two of the already existing species (Plesispermophilus angustidens, Sciurodon cadurcense) and to follow their development during the Oligocene beginning with the event of the « Grande Coupure ››. Sciurodon remained nearly without change until the end of the Middle Oligocene. Plesispermophilus angustidens split into two distinct phyletic lines, one of which (P. macrodon n. sp.) reaching considerable size, is represented till the beginning of the Upper Oligocene (Pech de Fraysse, Gaimersheim). The other line leads to Plesispermophilus ernii (basal Upper Oligocene of Burgmagerbein 1. terminal Upper Oligocene of Coderet). Besides the already known forms a new small-sized species (P. atavus n. sp.) is described, which by its primitive features closely resembles the genus Plesispermophilus. Two other small-sized species already known from the Upper Oligocene (? P. argoviensis) and Lower Miocene (? P. descedens) seem to be closely related to the new species. It cannot be decided whether they are descendents of this line or have developed independently, because of their poor fossil record.
    Comparison of the evolutionary modalities in the different phylogenetic lines reveals general trends. the most striking of which is the complication of the tooth pattern by the development of additional crests. In the lower molars the cusps diminuate in size and are more and more transformed into ridges. ln addition new connection between the crests appear. in the upper molars, the « selenodont » shape of the teeth becomes more and more dominant, and in the two main evolutionary lines of Plesispermophilus the metaconulus becomes duplicated. A further evolutionary trend is the size increase of the premolars compared to the molars, which is even more pronounced in the Miocene Aplodontidae.
    Phylogenetic relations between the primitive Plesispermophilus and certain « prociurines ›› of Northern America as well as between Plesispermophilus (P. angustidens) and more progressive forms of the Upper Oligocene (P. ernii, P. macrodon n. sp.) can be documented. In this light, the taxonomic distinction between Prosciurinae (bunodont) and Allomyinae (selenodont) sensu Rensberger 1976 can be shown to be artificial, because it separates forms from each other, which are evidently closely related. Consequently the separation into two subfamilies has been abolished. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 09, Fasc. 2 (1979)

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Contribution à l'étude des Cricétidés oligocènes d'Europe occidentale
Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Cricetidae; Europe; Oligocene

doi: 10.18563/pv.5.1.1-44
 
  Abstract

    Of the ten cricetid species from the Oligocene of Western Europe, attributed until now to the genus Eucricetodon, only four prove to be utilizable - E. atavus, E. huberi, E. praecursor, E. collatum - to which it is possible to add two forms newly described: E. huerzeleri and E. quercyi. The evolullon of the genus Pseudocricetodon is also the subject of new observations. The study of the dental morphology allows us to distinguish in these two genera three lineages beginning in the middle Oligocene:

    - Lineage P. montalbenensis-P. thaleri (from Montalban to Goderet), of small size, without
    increase in size.
    - LineageE. atavus-E. infralactorensis (from Hoogbulsel to Estrepouy), of middle size, with a regular increase in size.
    - Lineage E. huerzeleri-E. haslachense (level of Montalban to that of Estrepouy), of large size, with an increase in size.

    Two other forms are equally represented in these loealitles: Heterocricetodon aff. helbengi and Melissiodon quercyi. It has been possible to attribute a precise age (zone of "Cournon") to the last species, which has been defined by Schaub (l925) from material in the Old Quercy collections. The genera Pseudocricetodon, Eucricetodon, ? "Cricetodon", Leydimys, Eumys, differentiated at the beginning of the middle Oligocene in Europe, Asia and North America, seem to derive from a common ancestral group. The place of origin of this group could be situated in Asia. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 05, Fasc. 1 (1972)

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