Issue


October 1980
Vol. 9, Ext
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Print ISSN: 0031-0247
Online ISSN: 2274-0333
Frequency: biannual

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Palaeovertebrata Vol. 9, Ext:October 1980

Table of contents


Editorial


Préface au mémoire jubilaire en hommage à René Lavocat
Jacques Michaux
Keywords: Editorial
 
  Abstract

    Monsieur René Lavocat, Directeur du Laboratoire de Paléontologie des Vertébrés de la troisième section de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, quittait le service actif en l'année 1979.
    Cela fait maintenant quinze ans que fut installé à Montpellier, le laboratoire de Paléontologie des Vertébrés de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. La décision de M. René Lavocat a été particulièrement heureuse dans ses conséquences. Il a en effet permis le développement de l'enseignement et de la recherche en Paléontologie des Vertébrés à l'Université de Montpellier où se créa un des centres importants de cette discipline, en France. Il suscita la création de nouveaux laboratoires de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes installés dès leur origine à Montpellier, ainsi que le déplacement à Montpellier d'un Laboratoire de l'Ecole Pratique, préexistant. Ce groupe de laboratoires constitue maintenant l'Institut de Montpellier de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes.
    [...] 


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Articles


Les crocodiliens paléogenes du Tilemsi (Mali): un aperçu systématique
Eric Buffetaut
Keywords: Crocodilians; Dyrosoridae; Eocene; Mali; Palaeocene
 
  Abstract

    Abundant crocodilian fossil remains have been collected, mainly by R. Lavocat. from several levels of the
    Palaeogene of the Tilemsi valley (eastern Mali). Several dyrosaurids occur in the Palaeocene (Montian ?) : Phosphatosaurus sp., Hyposaurus bequaerti (Dollo). H. wilsoni (Swinton). H. nopesai (Swinton), Rhabdognathus rarus Swinton, R. compressus n. sp. ln the lower Eocene has been found a dyrosaurid which cannot be accurutely determined.In the middle Eocene were found a dyrosaurid, Tilemsisuchus lavocati n. g., n. sp., and an indeterminate eusuchian. 


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Sur les empreintes de pas des gros mammifères de l'Eocène supérieur de Garrigues-ste-Eulalie (Gard)
Paul Ellenberger
Keywords: Eocene; Euzet; Footprints; Ichnofauna
 
  Abstract

    Is hereby described an impressive lchnoiauna belonging to the Lower to Middle Ludian of the Gard (S. France). The slab, already cleaned over a length of 18 m, is located near the top of the Potamides aporoschema lacustrine limestone (Lower Ludian, Euzet zone). It is therefore older than the Célas sandstone deposit, and still more than the Melanoides albigensis and M. acutus marly limestone corresponding to the Upper Levels of the Ludian stage. Although biostratigraphically older than the La Débruge and Montmartre zone, the biotope shows already a sampling of very tall Artiodactyles, Perissodactyles and Carnivorous. One of the most « majestic ›› Artiodactyles, Anopolotheriipus lavocati, nov., points out a huge size type. To mention also among the Ichnotypes described, 10, the big Perissodactyle Palaeotheriipus similimedius, nov., and the big Carnivorous Hyaenodontipus praedator, nov. 


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L'occlusion dentaire chez Peradectes, Amphiperatherium et Peratherium, Marsupiaux du tertiaire d'Europe.
Jean-Yves Crochet
Keywords: Didelphidae; Eocene; Mastication; Oligocene; Wear facets
 
  Abstract

    The general principles guiding the study of wear facets which develop during mastication in mammals possessing tribosphenic molars are named. The application of this method of study to the molars of European Tertiary Didelphidae shows that the lineage of this family as represented by the species Peratherium cuvieri (Upper Eocene), P. elegans (Lower-middle Oligocene) and P. antiquum (Upper Oligocene) has propessively evolved toward a more carnivorous diet. 


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Compléments sur les Chiroptères de l'Eocène moyen d'Europe. Les genres Palaeochiropteryx et Cecilionycteris.
Bernard Sigé and Donald E. Russell
Keywords: Chiroptera; Geiseltal; Messel; Middle Eocene
 
  Abstract

    New dental and skeletal material referable to Palaeochiropteryx tupaiodon from the Middle Eocene locality of
    Messel (G.F.R.) is studied, which provides additions to the previously gained knowledge of this european genus. Dental specimens from Geiseltal (G.D.R.), also of Middle Eocene age, allow us to analyze Cecilionycteria prisca. Some of these are separated to establish a new genus, Matthesia, and two new species, M. germanica and M. ? insolita


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Sur les Condylarthres Cernaysiens Tricuspiodon et Landenodon (Paléocène supérieur de France)
Donald E. Russell
Keywords: Arctocyonidae; Condylarths; Late Paleocene; Tricuspiodontidae
 
  Abstract

    The numerical importance of the Condylarths in the Cernaysian fauna is discussed. The Condylarth family, Tricuspiodontidae, is reviewed in the light of new material and its close relationships to the Phenacodontidae is suggested ; one new species is recognized : Tricuspiodon sobrinus. European Arctocyonidae are reviewed and the recentclassification of Van Valen is briefly commented on. Also,  the arctocyonine Landenodon is described for the first time in Thanetian (Late Paleocene) sediments ; two new species are proposed : T. lavocati and T. phelizoni


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La variabilité morphologique dentaire du Landenodon (Condylarthra) de Dormaal, (Eocène,Belgique)
Marc Godinot
Keywords: Condylarths; Dormaal; Early Eocene; Landenodon
 
  Abstract

    The study of dental variations in Landenodon from Dormaal (early Eocene, Belgium) shows that only one
    species is present in this locality : L. woutersi QUINET, 1968 (Condylarthra, Arctocyonidae, Arctocyoninae). A high morphological variability is described, especially concerning the metaconid of P/4, the paraconid of M/2, and some characters of M1/ which have been found to be independant of each other. This variability is discussed. 


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Nouveau Dichobunidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) du gisement d'Aumelas (Hérault) d'âge Lutétien terminal
Jean Sudre
Keywords: Aumelas; Dichobunidae; Hérault; Middle Eocene; Upper Lutetian
 
  Abstract

    The faunal list of the mammals collected at the locality of Aumelas (Hérault, France) is revised. For the first
    time this Middle Eocene locality is precisely settled in the european chronological scale of "niveaux repères", between the levels of Bouxwiller and Egerkingen, in Uppermost Lutetian.
    A new Dichobunid from the site is described : Aumelasia gabineaudi n. g., n. sp. This new genus has primitive characters. and it may be in the descent of the Lower Eocene Protodichobune


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Le genre Microstonyx en Espagne et ses relations avec les autres espèces du même genre hors d'Espagne
Juana M. Golpe-Posse
Keywords: Microstonyx; Spain; Suidae
 
  Abstract

    The genus Microstonyx was found only in the north eastern part of Spain : M. antiquus, referable to the
    Eppelsheim type, from the pyrenean basins ; M. antiquus, more progresive, from the Vallès Basin : M. major-erymanthius group, from the Teruel-Ademuz Area and from Pieru (Penedès Basin).

      


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Prospection paléontologique de la région de Torralba de Ribota (Burdigalien du bassin de Calatayud, prov. de Zaragoza, Espagne)
Edouard Boné, Maria T. Alberdi, Manuel Hoyos and Nieves Lopez-Martinez
Keywords: Faunal assemblage; Macromammals; Spain; Zaragoza prov.
 
  Abstract

    The study of another faunal assemblage (mostly macromammals) from Torralba de Ribota (Calatayud, Zara-
    goza Prov.) demonstrates the Middle "Burdigalian" age of the deposit, MEIN zone 4a. Some ten genera have been recognized. a.o. Anchitherium, Aceratherium and Lagopsis


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Functional aspects of the evolution of rodent molars
Percy M. Butler
Keywords: Chewing; Muridae; Rodents; Wear facets
 
  Abstract

    The wear facets of primitive rodents can be homologized with those of primitive primates and ungulates. As in primates, the jaw movement was ectental, with an increased anterior component in the lingual phase (phase ll). The buccal phase (phase I) in rodents approaches the horizontal and it tends to be reduced in importance in comparison with the lingual phase. ln more advanced rodents the efficiency of grinding is increased by the development of additional cutting edges of enamel (e.g. enlargement of hypocone, development of mesoloph and lingual sinus). The buccal phase movement becomes lined up with the lingual phase movement to form a single oblique chewing stroke,resulting in planation of the crown. As the stroke becomes more longitudinal (propalinal) the enamel edges become more transverse. In Muridae propalinal chewing evolved before the loss of cusps, facets were reorientated and additional cusps developed. 


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Problems of classification as applied to the Rodentia
Albert E. Wood
Keywords:
 
  Abstract

    A classification should be both usable and useful,not too complex either in the amount of splitting or in the number of hierarchies involved, and not so simple as to give a false assurance of knowledge of relationships. Classifications are only possible because we do not have complete knowledge of the evolution of the organisms concerned because gaps in the record are necessary to allow the separation of the various taxa. Rodent classification is complicated by the large number of organisms involved and by the geat amount of parallelism that has taken place in the evolution of any and all features. If several independent features are characteristic of a certain taxon, should an effort be made to define the group on the basis of all the features, or should only one be selected as the determinant ? Unless the evolution of the several features was closely linked, the former solution will sooner or later lead to insurmountable problems. 


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The stratigraphic sequence of North American rodent faunas
Robert W. Wilson
Keywords: North America; Rodents; Stratigraphic sequence
 
  Abstract

    Rodents first appear in the latest Paleocene or earliest Eocene as very fragmentary specimens (Family Paramyidae) known largely from a single locality. After this sparse beginning, rodents are usually abundant in the North American record if proper recovery methods are used. Utilization of rodents for biostratigraphic purposes depends on 1/ extinction, and 2/ replacement by evolution of endemic groups and/or incursions of Old World rodents, and rarely and late by South American kinds. These incursions are separated by relatively long periods of isolation in the Paleogene, but more episodic in the Neogene. At least 10 rodent zones can be characterized by major distinctions, and these zones can be amplified into as many as 16 with little trouble. In general, rodent genera permit as refined a zonation as do genera of large mammals. Distinction at a specific level has not been attempted herein except in the Blancan and Post-Blancan. 


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Données et hypothèses sur la radiation initiale des rongeurs.
Jean-Louis Hartenberger
Keywords: Diversification scheme; Radiation; Rodents
 
  Abstract

    About the early radiation of Rodents, we have now from the early tertiary of Asia, a new fossil record, and
    we can do new interpretations. First the problem of the origin of Rodents is studied : considered as a sister group of Lagomorpha, it is possible to find their ancestors between the Mixodontia. Second the new facts about the origin of modern groups of Rodents are reviewed. A general scheme of this diversification can be proposed. 


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Les Dipodidae (Mammalia, Rodentia) d'Europe occidentale au Paléogène et au Néogène inférieur: origine et évolution.
Marguerite Hugueney and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: Dipodidae; Late Oligocene; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    The study of three new populations of Plesiosminthuspromyarion from the "phosphorites du Quercy" and of material from "Auvergne" brings new data on european oligocene Dipodidae. They appear in Western Europe at the beginning of late Oligocene. Evolutionary trends of the group are drawn and particularly the emergence of morphotypes announcing P. schaubi, from the Coderet level, is revealed among the most recent populations of P. promyarion. Differences are attempted to be drawn between the three species : P. promyarion, P. myarion and P. schaubi by restudying the type-population of P. myarion from the aquitanian deposits of Chavroches (Allier) in comparison with two other populations from the same age and the same region. Relationships between early european, american and asiatic Dipodidae are discussed. 


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On the genus Dikkomys (Geomyoidea, Mammalia)
Morton Green and Philip R. Bjork
Keywords: Dikkomys; Geomyoidae; North America
 
  Abstract

    The geomyoid genus Dikkomys is well represented in a sample from the Black Bear Quarry Il local fauna of Early Hemingfordian age in Bennett County, South Dakota. Isolated unworn P/4's of Dikkomys matthewi WOOD have a prominent median cristid (sagicristid) with a connection to the metaconid and the hypolophid. With wear, P/4 does not become as molariform as P/4 because of this cristid.
    A large sample of the Whitneyan beteromyid Proheteromys nebraskensis WOOD contains variants of the P/4 with on incipient sagicristid in approximately 18 percent of the population. The upper dentition and lower molars of Proheteromys nebraskensis are sufficiently generalized to indicate probable ancestry to Dikkomys


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Nouvelle interprétation de l'évolution du genre Megacricetodon au cours du Miocène
Jean-Pierre Aguilar
Keywords: Megacricetodon; Micromammals; Miocene
 
  Abstract

    La découverte de nouveaux gisements à micromammifères dans le Miocène du Sud de la France et d'Espagne montre que, s'il n'est plus possible d'accepter dans son intégralité le schéma phylétique de Fahlbusch du genre Megacricetodon, il existe toutefois des segments de lignées à l'intérieur de provinces géographiques différentes (Péninsule Ibérique, France, Europe Centrale), avec lesquels on peut établir une biochronologie locale, segments qu'il est aussi possible de placer les uns par rapport aux autres, en utilisant les corrélations que l'on peut reconnaître entre certains niveaux repères des mammalogistes et l'échelle stratigraphique marine.
    En utilisant ces données nouvelles, et d'après l'étude de la première molaire inférieure, nous proposons le
    schéma évolutif suivant, pour les espèces de grande taille :

    1 - au début du Burdigalien supérieur. une espèce commune, M. collongensis, issue de la forme ancestrale M. primitivus, est présente, de la Péninsule Ibérique à l'Europe Centrale. Son évolution est mal connue en Espagne, par contre cette lignée s'éteindrait en France au Burdigalien terminal avec le stade M. gersii nov. sp. de Sansan et de Luc-sur-Orbieu.
    2 - au cours de la régression post-burdigalienne. reconnue en Languedoc et dans la Péninsule Ibérique apparaîtrait une espèce immigrante, M. crusafonti qui, dans cette dernière province, évolue pour donner M. ibericus de Nombrevilla. L'espèce M. gregarius de La Grive M et de La Grenatière dériverait de cette forme immigrants, en ayant une évolution différente.
    3 - en Suisse, Bavière et Europe centrale, la lignée M. primitivus - M. collongensis va s'individualiser, dès le Burdigalien supérieur ou terminal, et donner naissance à la lignée M. bavaricus qui s'éteindra avec le stade M. germanicus nov. sp. du gisement anté - Hipparion de Anwil. Cette dernière espèce a été trouvée pour la première fois en France, dans le gisement de Collet Redon. 


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Premières données sur les rongeurs de la formation de Ch'orora (Ethiopie) d'âge Miocène supérieur. I: Thryonomyidés
Jean-Jacques Jaeger, Jacques Michaux and Maurice Sabatier
Keywords: Ethiopia; Paraulacodus; Rodents; Upper Miocene
 
  Abstract

    The genus Paraulacodus has been collected in the Ch'orora formation of Upper Miocene age, in Ethiopia. The new species, P. johanesi n. sp.. is more evolved than the previously described indian species P. indicus HINTON of the Siwalik Hills area. The morphological gap between P. johanesi and the present Thryonomys is still important. 


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Essai de filiation des campagnols et des lemmings (Arvicolidae, Rodentia) en zone holartique d'après la morphologie dentaire.
Jean Chaline
Keywords: Arvicolidae; dental morphology; Paleogeography; phyletic relationships
 
  Abstract

    The Arvicolid evolution results in an increase of the dental structure complexity. The M3/ differenciation seems to characterise the tribe subdivisions, that of M/1 being variable from one to another lineage. The phyletic relationships of fossil lineages are discussed from a paleogeographic point of view. 


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