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Contributions à l'étude du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. 6 - Les périssodactyles Rhinocerotidae
Claude Guérin
Keywords: Aceratherium; Anatomy; Biostratigraphy; Dicerorhinus; Miocene; Montredon; Paleoecology; Upper Vallesian
 
  Abstract

    The Montredon site has yielded about hundred rhinoceros remains:
    - twenty two of them, including 14 carpal and tarsal bones and 6 complete metapodials, belong to
    Dicerorhinus schleiermacheri at its second evolutionary stage;
    - fifty one remains including a nearby complete but crushed skull, a mandible, 26 isolated cheek-teeth, 10 carpals and tarsals, one metacarpal, are of Aceratherium incisivum, second evolutionary
    stage;
    - fifteen remains belong to Aceratherium (Alicornops) simorrense (among other an upper molar, 8 carpals and tarsals, one metatarsal);
    - six remains are attributed to an undetermined species of what is probably the most recent Prosantorhinus ever found.
    The evolution stages of the two first species allow us to date the deposit back to the Upper Vallesian, MN 10 zone; Montredon is one of the youngest sites in which Aceratherium simorrense was found. The four rhino species indicate a swampy forest biotope 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)

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Old world hemiones and new world slender species (Mammalia, Equidae)
Véra Eisenmann, John Howe and Mario Pichardo
Keywords: Amerhippus; biometry; Equus; Holocene; New World; Old World; Osteology; Pleistocene; Pliocene

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.159-233
 
  Abstract

    Morphological and biometrical description of skulls, teeth, and limb bones of extant and fossil Old World herniones (including E. hydruntinus) and of New World 'stilt-Iegged' and other slender species from Blancan to Holocene. An Appendix presents ways in which the approximate size of some missing bones or dimensions may be deduced from available ones.

    The discussed and/or illustrated fossils were found in Bolivia (Tarija), Canada (Yukon), China (Choukoutien, Gulongshan, Jiling, Loufangzi), Ecuador (Oil Fields), Ethiopia (Melka Kunturé), France (Lunel-Viel), Germany (Süssenborn), Greece (Agios Georgios, Petralona), Hungary (Dorog), Italy (Romanelli), Mexico (Cedazo, San Josecito), Mongolia (Sjara-osso-gol), Spain (Venta Micena), ex-Soviet Union (Akhalkalaki, Binagady, Chokurcha, Chukochya, Kabazi, Kolyma, Krestovka, Kurtak, Staroselie, Tologoj), USA (Alaska, Arkalon, Cedar Meadow, Channing, Conkling, Dry Mountains, Hay Springs, Leisey Shell Pit A, Lissie Formation, Natural Trap, Pool Branch, Powers Ranch, Rock Creek, San Diego, Santo Domingo, Seymour Formation, Shelter, Slaton, Trinity River). Numerous raw or statistically elaborated data are given in Tables.

    There is no evidence for the existence of Old World hemiones in the New World nor of 'stilt-Iegged' equids in the Old World. The first 'stilt-Iegged' equid was found at Santo Domingo, New Mexico, and is believed to be Late Blancan. It was probably at the origin of E. calobatus (Arkalon, Rock Creek) and of the smaller E. semiplicatus (Channing, Rock Creek). Slender, but not 'stilt-Iegged', equids found at Natural Trap, Wyoming, ca. 12 ky ago belong to Amerhippus. AlI these species share with Oid World Sussemiones (and some hemiones) peculiar patterns on the lower cheek teeth.

    The slender Equus sp. B of Leisey Pit A, Florida, ca. 1.2 Ma, as weIl as Amerhippus francisci and E. tau (probably a senior synonym of E. quinni) share conventional lower cheek teeth patterns. The skulls of A. francisci and E. tau, however, are quite different.

    Paleontological data suggest a common origin of Amerhippus, Sussemiones, and 'stilt-Iegged' equids during the late Blancan. Old World hemiones seem to have differentiated later. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4 (2008)

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Observations sur des remaniements structuraux post-mortem dans des dents de mammifères fossiles provenant des phosphorites du Quercy
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: Quercy phosphorites; rearrangements; Teeth
 
  Abstract

    Deux types de remaniements post mortem me paraissent caractéristiques de l'état de conservation des dents de mammifères fossiles dans les Phosphorites du Quercy :

    1) Des destructions localisées d'origine biologique, sous forme de galeries de morphologie très variable creusées dans la dentine et le cément, et impliquant sans doute la participation de différents types de micro-organismes. Ces altérations se sont développées peu de temps après la mort, avant la fossilísation proprement dite et se sont rapidement arrêtées après l'enfouissement dans le sédiment phosphaté.

    2) Des perturbations dans les structures de la dentine liées aux variations locales de minéralisation, provoquées par une imprégnation diffuse des zones les moins calcifiées par divers minéraux et probablement surtout de l`apatite. 


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Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 3-4 (1975)

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Préface au mémoire jubilaire en hommage à René Lavocat
Jacques Michaux
Keywords: Editorial
 
  Abstract

    Monsieur René Lavocat, Directeur du Laboratoire de Paléontologie des Vertébrés de la troisième section de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, quittait le service actif en l'année 1979.
    Cela fait maintenant quinze ans que fut installé à Montpellier, le laboratoire de Paléontologie des Vertébrés de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. La décision de M. René Lavocat a été particulièrement heureuse dans ses conséquences. Il a en effet permis le développement de l'enseignement et de la recherche en Paléontologie des Vertébrés à l'Université de Montpellier où se créa un des centres importants de cette discipline, en France. Il suscita la création de nouveaux laboratoires de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes installés dès leur origine à Montpellier, ainsi que le déplacement à Montpellier d'un Laboratoire de l'Ecole Pratique, préexistant. Ce groupe de laboratoires constitue maintenant l'Institut de Montpellier de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes.
    [...] 


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Published in Vol. 9, Ext (1980)

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Première occurrence d'un mégachiroptère ptéropodidé dans le Miocène moyen d'Europe (Gisement de Lo Fournas-II, Pyrénées-Orientales, France).
Jean-Pierre Aguilar, Marc Calvet, Jean-Yves Crochet, Serge Legendre, Jacques Michaux and Bernard Sigé
Keywords: Europe; First occurence; Megachiroptera; Middle Miocene; Teeth
 
  Abstract

    A lot of isolated teeth of a pteropodid fruit bat has been recently found within an assemblage of micromammals recovered from a karstic fissure filling named Lo Fournas-Il near the locality of Baixas (Pyrénées-Orientales, France). The fauna is Middle Miocene Serravallian age. The fossil fruit bat appears morphologically close to Rousettus; its size is that of a recent medium-sized fruit bat. While the fruit bats are very poorly known as fossils, this discovery shows that one of their recent types of dentitions was perfectly established by Middle Miocene times, and supports the presumed long geologic story of the suborder. One of the major invasions of the Old World fruit bats, supposed originated from SE Asia, reached up to Europe. A suborder unit is added to the miocene fauna of this continent. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 3 (1986)

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On the genus Dikkomys (Geomyoidea, Mammalia)
Morton Green and Philip R. Bjork
Keywords: Dikkomys; Geomyoidae; North America
 
  Abstract

    The geomyoid genus Dikkomys is well represented in a sample from the Black Bear Quarry Il local fauna of Early Hemingfordian age in Bennett County, South Dakota. Isolated unworn P/4's of Dikkomys matthewi WOOD have a prominent median cristid (sagicristid) with a connection to the metaconid and the hypolophid. With wear, P/4 does not become as molariform as P/4 because of this cristid.
    A large sample of the Whitneyan beteromyid Proheteromys nebraskensis WOOD contains variants of the P/4 with on incipient sagicristid in approximately 18 percent of the population. The upper dentition and lower molars of Proheteromys nebraskensis are sufficiently generalized to indicate probable ancestry to Dikkomys


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 9, Ext (1980)

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Le genre Leptolophus (Perissodactyla, Mammalia): morphologie et histologie dentaires, anatomie cranienne, implications fonctionnelles.
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: dental histology; Eocene; functional anatomy; Palaeotheriidae; skull anatomy; Southern France; systematics
 
  Abstract

    A strong lophodonty, an extreme heterodonty, some hypsodonty and regular overlayings of coronal cement are prominent features of the genus Leptolophus (Palaeotheriinae = Palaeotheriidae s.s.). The histological pattern of the teeth unusually joins type II enamel prisms, characteristic of advanced ungulates, together with archaic features, such as an almost complete lack of Hunter-Schreger zonation and a weak expanse of peritubular dentine. The skull is narrow and slender, with an elongated ante-orbital facial region, a moderately notched nasal aperture, a rather elongated post-canine diastem, parallel zygornatic arches and a fairly dorsally located squamoso-mandibular joint.The functional analysis brings to light "ectolophodont" masticatory cycles with two phases, in which maximum power was applied, contrary to equíds, on hindmost teeth; likewise, skull accomodations to increasing height of the teeth are quite different. This study leads to the assumption that Leptolophus may have been light mammals, living in rather open surroundings, browsing on herbaceous plants or leaves cropped close to the ground. Moreover, it appears that it could have been some inadequacy of dental structures to the dietary, which leaded to quick wear of the teeth and to many enamel notches, but had been somewhat balanced by the early increase of hypsodonty, not induced in such a case by a biotop deterioration (as it will happen at the end of the Eocene). This ínadaptation might account for the short duration of the genus Leptolophus, whose the 3 species, L. stehlini, L. nouletí and L. magnus n. sp. are indeed confined in the level MP 16. Its geographical spreading (as far as known, South of western Europe) and the morphological pattern of its dentition suggest that this genus would have been related to early upper Eocene endemic spanish forms.





      


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Published in Vol. 27, Fasc. 1-2 (1998)

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First report of an Eocene reptile fauna from Florida, USA
Alan J. Holman
Keywords: Eocene; Fauna; Florida; Reptile; USA
 
  Abstract

    Fossils of the Trionychidae, Bataguridae or Emydidae, Palaeophis and Crocodylia from Chattahoochee, NW Florida, USA, represent the first report of an Eocene reptile fauna from Florida. 


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Published in Vol. 30, Fasc. 1-2 (2001)

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Carolocoutoia ferigoloi nov. and sp. (Protodidelphidae), a new Paleocene "opossum-like" marsupial from Brazil.
Francisco J. Goin, Edison V. Oliveira and Adriana M. Candela
Keywords: Brazil; Didelphimorphia; Itaborai; Marsupialia; New taxa; Paleocene; Protodidelphidae; South America
 
  Abstract

    Carolocoutoia ferigoloi gen. et sp. nov. is the largest of protodidelphid marsupials, known from Middle Paleocene levels at Itaboraí Formation, southeastern Brazil. It differs from other members of this family in having molars with low cusps which are basally inflated, rounded crests without cutting edges, and a thick enamel layer which is wrinkled, specially at the labial half. A comparative analysis among representatives of this family led us to recognize only three genera undoubtely assignable to it:  Protodidelphis PAULA COUTO, 1952, Robertbutleria MARSHALL, 1987, and Carolocoutoia gen. nov. Protodidelphids lack the basic derived features diagnostic of Polydolopimorphian marsupials, while most of its derived features agree with its belonging to the Didelphimorphia. Protodidelphids comprise a specialized clade of opossum-like marsupials adapted to frugivorous or frugivore-omnivorous feeding habits. They differ from other didelphimorphians in having very large, spire-like entoconids, reduced and antero-posteriorly compressed paraconids, absence of stylar cusp C and of para- and metaconules, large stylar cusps B and D which are proximate to each other, short postmetacristae, eccentric protocones, and molars that increase rapidly in size from M/ml to M/m3.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 27, Fasc. 3-4 (1998)

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Rates of evolution in divergent species lineages as a test of character displacement in the fossil record : tooth size in Paleocene Plesiadapis (Mammalia, Proprimates)
Phillip D. Gingerich
Keywords: character displacement; character divergence; fractal time series; Plesiadapis; Rates of evolution
 
  Abstract

    Two species lineages of North American late Paleocene Plesiadapis exhibit a pattern of size divergence from a common ancestral lineage. Time series of fossils in each of these lineages are analyzed to test the idea that size divergence represents competitive character displacement. The critical factor in a test of character divergence is showing that divergent lineages evolved directionally rather than randomly (multifactorially). Analysis of evolutionary rates and their temporal scaling in Plesiadapis shows that both divergent species lineages have the scaling slope expected for lineages evolving randomly rather than directionally, and size divergence in Plesíadapis does not represent character displacement. Rates of evolution commonly observed on a per-generation time scale are high enough to produce character displacement within a few generations. Thus character displacement is not likely to be visible on scales of time that can be studied in the fossil record. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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An evening bat (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the late Early Eocene of France, with comments on the antiquity of modern bats
Suzanne J. Hand, Bernard Sigé, Michael Archer and Karen H. Black
Keywords: evolution; palaeobiogeography; Prémontré; Western Europe; Ypresian

doi: 10.18563/pv.40.2.e2
 
  Abstract

    Bats are among the most numerous and widespread mammals today, but their fossil record is comparatively meagre and their early evolution poorly understood. Here we describe a new fossil bat from dental remains recovered from late Early Eocene sediments at Prémontré, northern France. This 50 million-year-old bat exhibits a mosaic of plesiomorphic and apomorphic dental features, including the presence of three lower premolars, a single-rooted p3, short p4 with metaconid, myotodont lower molars and a tall coronoid process of the dentary. This combination of features suggests it is an early member of Vespertilionidae, today’s most speciose and geographically widespread bat family. The Prémontré bat has bearing on hypotheses about the origins of vesper or evening bats (Family Vespertilionidae), as well as crown-group chiropterans.


      


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Published in Vol.40-2 (2016)

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A classic in the making : VERTEBRATE PALAEONTOLOGY (4th edition). By Michael J. Benton.
Eric Buffetaut
Keywords: Book review; Vertebrate Palaeontology

doi: 10.18563/pv.40.1.e1
 
  Abstract

    When the first edition of Mike Benton’s Vertebrate Palaeontology came out in 1990, sauropods still dragged their tails on the ground, the closest relatives of whales were mesonychids, and Mesozoic birds consisted essentially of Archaeopteryx, Ichthyornis and Hesperornis. Twenty-five years later, the book, now in its fourth edition, is a third longer, in a larger format and sports fine colour plates – in addition to a companion website. 


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Published in Vol.40-1 (2016)

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Pseudorhyncocyon cayluxi Filhol, 1892 insectivore géant des phosphorites du Quercy
Bernard Sigé
Keywords: Insectivores; Leptictidae; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    Une hémimandibule et une molaire supérieure recueillies dans le gisement oligocène inférieur d'Escamps (phosphorites du Quercy) fournissent de nouvelles informations sur le genre Pseudorhyncocyon FllHOL, grand insectivore longirostre du Paléogène d'Europe, fossile très mal connu jusqu'ici. Des comparaisons avec les macroscélididés africains, géolabididés nord-américains, et leptictidés euraméricains permettent de rattacher cet amimal aux leptictidés, et de le rapprocher du genre Lepticidium TOBIEN, au sein de la sous-famille européenne nouvelle des pseudorhyncocyoninés. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 1-2 (1974)

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Die Ohr-Region der Paulchoffatiidae (Multituberculata, Ober-Jura).
Gerhard Hahn
Keywords: Multituberculata; Ober-Jura; Paulchoffatiidae; Petrosum; Portugal
 
  Abstract

    The petrosal of the Paulchoffatiidae HAHN, 1969 is described and compared with that of younger multituberculates and of other Mesozoic mammals. The "Morrison petrosal", described by Prothero (1983), is also discussed; it probably belongs to the multituberculates. The reconstruction of the ventral side of the Paulchoffatiinae-skull, given by Hahn in 1987, is completed by addition of the otic and the occipital region. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Fasc. 3 (1988)

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The skull of Arsinoitherium (Mammalia, Embrithopoda) and the higher order interrelationships of ungulates
Nicholas Court
Keywords: Arsinoitherium; Phylogeny; Skull; Ungulate
 
  Abstract

     Detailed anatomical description of arsinoithere cranial remains from the Lower Oligocene, Fayum Depression, Egypt, provides the basic data for a systematic investigation. All cranial and some postcranial features are assessed from a phylogenetic standpoint. Several soft tissue characters are then added to a cladistic analysis based on 54 derived ungulate morphological characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis implies that perissodactyls, sirenians, proboscideans and arsinoitheres constitute a monophyletic unit (5 synapomorphies). However, increasing the tree length by 3 steps reveals a closer association between hyraxes and perissodactyls. Nevertheless, 13 synapomorphies link proboscideans, sirenians and  arsinoitheres to the exclusion of all other ungulates. Form of the sphenopalatine and ethmoid foramina, recurved posttympanic process, absence of a fenestra rotundum in the petrosal, vestigial paroccipital process of the exoccipital and the highly unusual absence of a hypoglossal foramen in the skull, imply a robust sister-group relationship between arsinoitheres and proboscideans. In this analysis artiodactyls share only one derived character with all other ungulates studied. Monophyly of Ungulata, including Artiodactyla, is therefore only weakly supported. It is argued that pedal anatomy of hyraxes is non-homologous with that of Tethytheria. Arsinoitherium should now be classified within Tethytheria, sharing a sister-group relationship with Proboscidea. Hyraxes are excluded, thus refuting the concept of Paenungulata. However, monophyly of the wider concept, Pantomesaxonia, containing hyraxes, perissodactyls, sirenians, proboscideans and now, arsinoitheres, is supported by this study. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 22, Fasc. 1 (1992)

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 La poche à phosphate de Ste-Neboule (Lot) et sa faune de vertébres du Ludien Supérieur. 1 La poche et son remplissage
Bernard Gèze
Keywords: Eocene; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    La poche de Ste-Néboule, commune de Béduer (Lot), 15 km environ à l'WSW de Figeac, fait partie du groupe le plus septentrional des gouffres creusés par les ruissellements du Paléogène dans les calcaires jurassiques de la bordure sud-ouest du Massif Central et qui furent comblés à la même époque par des argiles sidérolithiques accompagnées de phosphate de chaux concrétionné ainsi que des restes de la célèbre faune dite «des phosphorites du Quercy» . 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 08, Fasc. 2-4 (1978)

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First record of the genus Megaderma Geoffroy (Microchiroptera: Megadermatidae) from Australia.
Suzanne J. Hand
Keywords: Australia; Chiroptera; Megaderma; Megadermatidae; Pliocene; Rackham's Roost Site; Riversleigh
 
  Abstract

    A new Tertiary megadermatid is described from Rackham's Roost Site, a Pliocene limestone cave deposit on Riversleigh Station, northwestern Queensland, Australia. It appears to represent the first Australian record of Megaderma GEOFFROY, 1810, a genus otherwise known from Tertiary African and European taxa and the living Asian species M. spasma (LINNAEUS, 1758) and M. (Lyroderma) lyra PETERS, 1872. Megademza richardsi n. sp. is one of the smallest megademiatids known. It exhibits a mixture of plesiomorphic and autapomorphic features, the latter appearing to exclude it from being ancestral to any living megadermatid. The new species is one of eight megadermatids identified from the Australian fossil record, most of which are referable to Macroderma MILLER, 1906. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 24, Fasc. 1-2 (1995)

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Contributions à l'étude du gisement miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. Avant propos.
Bernard Sigé
Keywords: Editorial; Mammalia; Montredon; Upper Miocene
 
  Abstract

    Le Mémoire Extraordinaire 1988 de PALAEOVERTEBRATA regroupe dix articles consacrés au gisement à mammifères du Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault), connu et classique depuis la fin du siècle dernier, et auquel est lié le nom du savant paléontologue lyonnais Charles Depéret.
    Cette monographie vient normalement à la suite de celle parue en 1982 dans PALAEOVERTEBRATA, dont les différents articles traitaient de la stratigraphie du gisement, et faisaient l'étude des différents groupes de micromammifères représentés dans la faune (insectivores, chiroptères, rongeurs). 


  View editorial

Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)

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Contributions à l'étude des micromammifères du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). 3- Les insectivores
Jean-Yves Crochet and Morton Green
Keywords: Hérault; Insectivora; Late Miocene; Micromammals; Montredon
 
  Abstract

    This paper presents a preliminary list of insectivores from the Vallesian beds at Montredon (France). The associated rodent fauna has established a Vallesian age for the fauna. Eleven species belonging to the Soricidae, Talpidae, Erinaceidae, and Dimylidae are identified of which four only are referred with certainty to forms already named. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 12, Fasc. 3 (1982)

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Repartition et dynamisme des faunes de Lacertilia et d'Amphisbaenia dans l'Eocène Europe
Marc Augé
Keywords: Amphisbaenia; Climate; Endemism; Eocene; Europe; Lacertilia; Metabolism
 
  Abstract

    The composition of assemblages of lizards and Amphisbaenian from the European Eocene are described. At least ten lizard families are identified from the lower European Eocene levels. Eight are still recorded in the last level (Escamps) of the late Eocene. Agamid lizards (genus Tinosaurus) died out by the end of the lower Eocene and Varanid lizards (genus Saniwa) disappeared by the beginning of the late Eocene. Amphisbaenians are recorded throughout the Eocene in Europe. The lacertilian fossil record of Europe and North America show a high degree of faunal resemblance in the early Eocene, followed by a decrease during the later part of the epoch. The lacertilian and amphisbaenian faunas from the European Eocene are not subject to great variations during the period; this is in contrast with the mammal record at the same time. It is argued that the low metabolic rates and the ectothermy of lizards could explain those differences, along with the increasing insularity of the West European area during the late Eocene time.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 22, Fasc. 2-3 (1993)

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