Current issue


December 2016
Vol.40-2
<< prev. next >>

Print ISSN: 0031-0247
Online ISSN: 2274-0333
Frequency: biannual

Article Management

You must log in to submit or manage articles.

You do not have an account yet ? Sign up.


Most downloaded articles


Eurodexeinae, eine neue unterfamilie der Artiodactyla (Mammalia) aus dem unter- und mitteleozän europas
Jorg Erfurt and Jean Sudre
Keywords: Artiodactyls; Eocene; evolution; Germany; Lutetian; New genus; New subfamily
 
  Abstract

    Dichobunoid artiodactyls are described in this paper from the middle Eocene Geiseltal lignite deposits near Halle (Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany). The genera Eurodexis and Parahexacodus are established based on odontologica1 studies. The type-species are E. ceciliensis (FRANZEN & KRUMBIEGEL, 1981) and P. germanicus n. sp. from the "obere Mittelkohle" (see text), MP 13. The genera are referred to the new subfamily Eurodexeinae (Dichobunidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia), which also contains the monospecific genus Eygalayodon SUDRE & MARANDAT, 1993. These new genera show many features similar to North American homacodontids and antiacodontids. They exemplify a high degree of diversity in European dichobunids. Moreover, the family Dichobunidae includes the Dichobuninae and the Hyperdichobuninae. The connection of the posthypocristid with the postentocristid, the shift of a medial to a lingual position of the hypoconulid on the lower molars and the development of a large, caniniform P1 are regarded as the principal tendencies of the eurodexeines. The entoconid is larger and more mesially situated compared to that of Diacodexis. The hypoconulid has a lingual position on a broad postcingulid. The elongation of the premolars and the presence of diastemata are considered associated with extension of the muzzle. This and the acute tubercles of the molars could indicate a limited degree of insectivory. Protodichobune cf. oweni and Diacodexis cf. varleli, first reported here from the "untere Unterkohle" (MP 11) of the Geiseltal, demonstrate the existence of forms in the basal part of the middle Eocene, that are direct descendants of lower Eocene ones. Eurodexis russelli n. sp. from MP 10 of Premontre is the most primitive representative of Eurodexis. A further part of this lineage could be Messelobunodon sp. from MP 11 of Messel (Germany). Another form from Premontre, referred to Eurodexeinae indet., represents the origin of the lineage to Parahexacodus germanicus n. sp. from the Geiseltal (MP 13). The identification of several lineages in MP 10 is evidence of an adaptive radiation during this time. Unfortunately the history of the earlier species of Diacodexis is not known well enough to exclude earlier diversifications. Our study shows the independent development of artiodactyls at the end of the lower Eocene in Europe, North America (and maybe in Asia) with much convergence. The question of the geographic origin of the genus Diacodexis is still open. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

PDF
Evolution of the Rhizomyine zygoma
Lawrence J. Flynn, Mohammed Sarwar and Jean-Jacques Jaeger
Keywords: parallel evolution; Rhizomyidae; Rodentia; Siwalik; zygoma
 
  Abstract

    Cranial anatomy of a late Miocene rhizomyid, Brafhyrhizomys cf. B. pilgrimi, provides new evidence on the origin of the dorsal, round infraorbital foramen of living rhizomyines. Primitive rhizomyids retain a myomorphous keyhole foramen with a long ventral slit that retracts upward during the evolutionary history of the Rhizomyidae. The primitive condition of the elongated ventral slit is represented by Kanisamys sivalensis. Among later burrowers the foramen shows progressive dorsal migration, the ventral slit terminating midway up the snout in B.tertracharax and B. choristos ; well above the midline of the snout in Brachyrhizamys cf. B. pilgrimi. Apparently this transformation began earlier among Rhizomyinae than among Tachyoryctinae and continued to a more derived stage in rhizomyines. ln living Rhizomyx the ventral slit is absent and only a high round hole remains at the anterior end of the zygomatic arch. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (1985)

PDF
Fossil snakes from the Palaeocene of São José de Itaboraí, Brazil Part III. Ungaliophiinae, Booids incertae sedis, and Caenophidia. Summary, update and discussion of the snake fauna from the locality
Jean-Claude Rage
Keywords: booid-grade incertae sedis; Brazil; Caenophidia; New taxa; Palaeocene; Russellophiidae; Snakes; tropidophiids; Ungaliophiinae

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.37-73
 
  Abstract

    Aside from Madtsoiidae, anilioids, and Boidae that were studied previously, the middle Palaeocene of ltaborai (BraziI) has produced Ungaliophiinae ("tropidophiids"), booid-grade snakes incertae sedis, and a possible Russellophiidae (Caenophidia) that are described in the present article. This article is the third and final report on the snakes from the locality. The Ungaliophiinae (Paraungaliophis pricei gen. et sp. nov.) are rare whereas the booid-grade snakes incertae sedis (ltaboraiophis depressus gen. et sp. nov., Paulacoutophis perplexus gen. et sp. nov.) are more frequent. A single vertebra is referred to the Russellophiidae (Caenophidia) with reservation. An update of the whole fauna of snakes from ltaborai is provided. Hechtophis austrinus that was tentatively referred to the erycine Boidae is now regarded as a Boidae incertae sedis. Most snakes from Itaborai are known only from the locality. Astonishingly, only the ailioids Coniophis cf. C. precedens gives possible evidence of interchanges between South and North America. The fauna of snakes from Itaborai, as well as the other Palaeocene faunas of snakes from South America are distinct from those of the Cretaceous and the Eocene of South America; they appear to be more different from the Cretaceous faunas than from those of the Eocene. The fauna from Itaborai is the richest and most diverse assemblage of snakes from the Palaeocene worldwide; it shares only a few taxa with other Palaeocene localities. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4 (2008)

PDF
Les Pseudosciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) de l'Eocène moyen de Bouxwiller, Egerkingen et Lissieu.
Jean-Louis Hartenberger
Keywords: Bouxwiller; cranium; Egerkingen; Middle Eocene; Rodents

doi: 10.18563/pv.3.2.27-64
 
  Abstract

    The description of new material from three classic middle Eocene localities of western Europe permits the addition of details to the systematics of primitive Pseudosciurids. The cranial anatomy of Protadelomys cartieri (STEHLIN and SCHAUB) from Egerkingen is described here and compared to that of the Adelomyines from the late Eocene, until now the only ones known. The morphologic and biometric study of the dentition of P. cartieri compared to that of P. alsaticus n. sp. from Bouxwiller and P. Iugdunensis n. sp. from Lissieu, forms respectively older and younger than P. cartieri, permits the evolutionary tendencies of the group to be demonstrated and shows that notable differences in age exist between these localities. This ensemble of forms can constitute a valuable guide lineage in the establishment of a fine stratigraphy of the period. Other less well known lineages are present at Egerkingen along with P. cartieri. They can be related to genera that have been noted int he late Eocene. In conclusion, a criticism of recent zonation proposals, made by divers authors, completes this article. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 03, Fasc. 2 (1969)

PDF
 La poche à phosphate de Ste-Néboule (Lot) et sa faune de vertebres du Ludien supérieur. 9- Primates et Artiodactyles
Jean Sudre
Keywords: Eocene; Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    La faune d'artiodactyles de Ste-Néboule, qui comprend neuf espèces, présente de nombreux
    points communs avec les faunes habituellement rattachées au Ludien supérieur, telles celles de La Débruge ou de Montmartre. A l'inverse de ces localités, on ne connaît pourtant, à Ste-Néboule, ni Oxacronae, ni Anoplotheriinae. Parmi les espèces du gisement se trouve une nouvelle espèce du genre Mouillacitherium (M. schlosseri n. sp.), cette forme devant être interprétée comme le dernier représentant du rameau. Nous faisons connaître par ailleurs la presque totalité de la denture du Dacrytherium saturninii, espèce qui était à ce jour très imparfaitement documentée. Ste-Néboule est, d'autre part, la seule localité où l'on peut signaler l'association probable de deux lignées du genre Amphimeryx. Les primates sont peu diversifiés à Ste-Néboule, puisque le groupe est limité au seul genre Adapis. Les genres Microchoerus et Pseudoloris, que l'on sait pourtant être représentés dans des gisements dâge voisin (Microchoerus ornatus à San Cugat de Gavadons et Mormont-Entreroches, Pseudoloris reguanti à San Cugat de Gavadons, Pseudoloris cf. reguanti à Neustadt ; cf. Louis et Sudre 1975) sont absents dans les faunes du Quercy de cette période. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 08, Fasc. 2-4 (1978)

PDF
A new vertebrate locality in the eifelian of the khush-yeilagh formation, Eastern Alborz, Iran
Alain Blieck, Farrokh Golshani, Daniel Goujet, Amir Hamdi, Philippe Janvier, Elga Mark-Kurik and Michel Martin
Keywords: Devonian; Iran; khush-yeilagh formation; Vertebrate
 
  Abstract

    A new Devonian vertebrste locality has been discovered in 1976 in the basal part of the Khush-Yeilagh Formation in the eastern Alborz Mountains of Iran. The fossils occur in a band one centimeter thick which is identifiable at other outcrops in the area. A preliminary study of the remains has yielded the following faunal list : Placodermata (Phlyctaeniida indet.. Groenlandaspididae indet.. Coccosteidae indet., Holonema sp., Ptyctodontida indet., Antiarcha indet., Bothriolepis cf. kwangtungensis), Elasmobranchii (Ctenacanthidae indet.), Acanthodii (Gyracanthus sp., « Onchus » overathensis, Ischnacanthiforme indet.), Dipnoi (? Dipteridae indet.), « Crossopterygii ›› (Onychodus cf. sigmoides, Holoptychiidae indet., Osteolepididae indet.). This fauna is older than the Middle Givetian and probably of Middle or Lower Eifelian age. Owing to its diversity, it may prove possible to use it in the future as a reference fauna for the study of the Devonian vertebrates in Central Asia and the Middle East. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 09, Fasc. 5 (1980)

PDF
A new study of the anthracotheres (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from pondaung formation, Myanmar: systematics implications
Aung N. Soe
Keywords: Anthracohyus; Anthracokeryx; Anthracotherium; Pondaung Formation; sexual dimorphism; Siamotherium; South East Asia; Taxonomy

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.89-157
 
  Abstract

    Anthracotheres from the Pondaung Formation, Myanmar, are considered as one of the most primitive artiodactyl groups and they represent the oldest known record in the world. Thus, the understanding of this group has numerous implications for evolutionary biology and biochronological correlations. However, the systematlcs of these mammals has been interpreted in different ways, and the main debate focuses on the number of taxa represented in the Pondaung Formation. The revised taxonomy proposed here is mainly based on the relative development of the upper molar W-shaped ectoloph, system of crests and stylar cusps, and on body size. On the basis of these characters, they are classified into four genera including six different species. Two well-known genera, Anthracotherium and Anthracokeryx, are validated and more precisely diagnosed. Anthracokeryx possesses a better developed W-shaped ectoloph, system of crests and stylar cusps than Anthracotherium, which displays notable differences with the more derived representatives of this genus. Both of these Pondaung genera show evidence for sexual dimorphism. However, the incompleteness of fossil material fueled a debate concerning the status of two additional Pondaung anthracotheres, Siamotherium and Anthracohyus. The latter genus is of uncertain affinities, but it has been considered as a hippopotamid ancestor. Despite new material attributed to these two forms, additional discoveries are still required to establish their taxonomic status. The hypothesis that Southeast Asia was the centre of origin of Anthracotheriidae is supported by the retention of numerous primitive dental characters in these taxa and by the antiquity of the Pondaung Formation, to which an age of 37 My is now generally accepted. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4 (2008)

PDF
Contributions à l'étude du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. 10 - Conclusions générales
Jacques Michaux
Keywords: Mammalia; Montredon; Upper Miocene
 
  Abstract

    Le présent volume traite des lagomorphes, carnivores, artiodactyles, périssodactyles et proboscidiens de la faune de Montredon (Hérault). Il clôt la monographie de ce célèbre gisement d'âge miocène supérieur du Languedoc, dont la première partie, relative aux rongeurs, insectivores et chiroptères, fut publiée en 1982.
    [...] 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)

PDF
Les vertébrés fossiles de Colombie et les problèmes posés par l'isolement du Continent sud-Américain.
Jaime de Porta
Keywords: Columbia; Cretaceous; Fauna; Quaternary; South America

doi: 10.18563/pv.2.2.77-94
 
  Abstract

    A general view is given of the vertebrate faunas, Cretaceous to Quaternary of age, found in Columbia and of their principal characteristics. This view leads to the discussion of the isolation of the South American continent and of the role played by the Bolivar syncline with respect to North American immigrants during the Oligocene. The absence of marine deposits of Oligocene age in the north and northwest of Columbia suggests the possibility of a communication with Central America. This communication would have permitted the passage of hystricomorph rodents, of platyrrhine monkeys, and of colubrids. The non-occupation, until then, of the ecologie niches of these groups would have favored their installation beside the indigenous fauna. In this hypothesis it would no longer be necessary to admit that these vertebrates arrived as «island hoppers ››. The eco-biologic conditions would explain the absence of large-sized forms of North American origin. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 02, Fasc. 2 (1969)

PDF
Henri Menu, 1925-2007
Bernard Sigé
Keywords: bats; biography

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.1-5
 
  Abstract

    Record of life and works of Henri Menu, French zoologist, contributor to the knowledge of living and fossil bats. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4 (2008)

PDF
Artiodactyla aus den Eozänen Braunkohlen des Geiseltales bei Halle (DDR)
Jorg Erfurt and Hartmut Haubold
Keywords: Artiodactyles; Eocene; Europe; Paleoecology; Stratigraphy; Taxonomy
 
  Abstract

    The present study of Artiodactyla from the Middle Eocene of the Geiseltal lignite beds concems systematics, biostratigraphy, and palaeoecology on the basis of 174 specimens: isolated remains to more complete skeletons. Instead of the formerly known five species of two families are now recognized 14 species of the Diacodexeidae, Dichobunidae, Cebochoeridae, and Haplobunodontidae. New species are Aumelasia maniai, Anthracobunodon neumarkensis, Masillabune franzeni. Four species of the Geiseltalfauna are definitely known from elswere, and five species are closely related to those from other European localities. Evidently the faunal situation of artiodactyls during the Middle Eocene of Europe was largely uniform. The distribution of artiodactyls within the sequence of the Geiseltal strata corroborates the biostratigraphical concept of the land mammal age Geiseltalian (Franzen & Haubold l986b) as well as the mammalian reference levels MP 11-13 (Franzen 1987). Reconstructions of the skulls and skeletons allow conclusions on the functional morphology and palaeoecology of the artiodactyls of the European Middle Eocene 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 3 (1989)

PDF
Les pantolestidés (Mammalia, Pantolesta) de l'Eocène inférieur de Prémontré (Aisne, France).
Richard Smith
Keywords: France; Mammals; Pantolestids; Ypresian
 
  Abstract

    Study of pantolestid mammals from the late Ypresian locality of Prémontré (reference level MP 10) allows the recognition of three genera: Palaeosinopa. Pantolestes and Premontrelestes n. gen. Pantolestes, up to now only recorded from North America, is represented by P. sabatieri n. sp. Premontrelestes n. gen., represented by the type species P. duchaussoisi n. sp., is compared with Pantolestes and Buxolestes. The latter, known from middle Eocene sites in Europe, has not been recognized at Prémontré. Two other taxa, the first of which is close to Pantolestes and the second of Premontrelestes n. gen. are left in open nomenclature.    


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 30, Fasc. 1-2 (2001)

PDF
Une faunule de vertébrés sous la base de grès de Celas (Eocène supérieur) à ST Dresery (Gard)
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: Artiodactyla; Biostratigraphy; Eocene; Mammals
 
  Abstract

    The St-Dézéry local fauna (3 reptile-, 4 mammal species) is approximately of the same age as the La Débruge or the Ste-Néboule faunas. It conduces to a better dating of the limestones underlying the Célas sandstones. A large part of a mandible of Amphimeryx was found there, which documents the record of this family of small artiodactyls 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 23, Fasc. 1-4 (1994)

PDF
Contributions à l'étude du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. 2 - les carnivores
Gérard de Beaumont
Keywords: Anatomy; Carnivora; France; Montredon; systematics; Upper Miocene
 
  Abstract

    The locality of Montredon has provided 8 species of camivores, often little documented, that are discribed and depicted. All the remains are fragmentary and generally badly preserved which lowers very much the possible precision of the taxonomic study; this one has however allowed the creation of a new subspecies. The most richlypdocumented forms are an ursid (Indarctos) and a felid (Machairodus). Issuing often from a westem Europe evolution, the carnivores are well inserted between those of the better known faunas of the "Classical Pontian" and of the lower Vallesian and this situation fits also well with their stratigraphic level, that cannot however be more accurately defined with them alone.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)

PDF
Analysis of mammalian communities from the late Eocene and Oligocene of southern France
Serge Legendre
Keywords: Late Eocene; Mammalian communities; Oligocene; Quercy; Southern France
 
  Abstract

    Valverde's cenogram method is used to analyse mammalian communities from the late Eocene to late Oligocene of southern France, mainly from the "Phosphorites du Quercy". Cenogram analysis involves plotting the size of each component species in a fauna on a semilog diagram in rank order, permitting fossil faunas to be compared with Recent ones. The configurations of Recent communities serve as models for establishing the general environmental characteristics of fossil mammalian faunas. This method of analysis applied to faunal sequence can reveal major and sudden ecological perturbations. The paleobiogeographical event (i.e. the mammalian immigration wave) at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in western Europe, known as the «Grande Coupure", is here shown to represent a drastic and sudden ecological change: late Eocene tropical environments in Europe deteriorated rapidly turning to subdesert or desert environments al the beginning of the Oligoccne. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 4 (1986)

PDF
Strange Eocene rodents from Spain
Pablo Pelaez-Campomanes and Nieves Lopez-Martinez
Keywords: Biogeography; Eocene; Phylogeny; Rodents; Spain; Zamoramys extraneus n. gen. n. sp.
 
  Abstract

    A new European rodent from the middle Eocene of Spain, Zamoramys extraneus n. gen., n. sp., appears to be closely related to the middle Eocene chapattimyid rodents of Indo-Pakistan. This contradicts the generally accepted paleobiogeographic hypothesis of a Tethyian barrier between Europe and Asia isolating Europe during the middle Eocene. Because of this barrier, some authors have proposed that European and Asian rodents were not closely related, their similarity being the result of morphological convergence. Here monophyly has been tested, using the parsimony criterion, based on an analysis of dental characters (including discussing of homology and the validity of some characteristics). Our results indicate a phylogenetic relationship among the Asiatic Ctenodactyloidea, Zamoramys from Spain, and the European endemic Theridomyoidea. We also conclude from our analysis that theridomyoids and European ischyromyoids are probably not closely related phylogenetically. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

PDF
Un nouveau genre de ?Palaeotheriidae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) décelé dans les phosphorites du Quercy (Eocène supérieur ou Oligocène) d'après un arrière crâne sans dents.
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: endocranial cast; Epitympanic sinus; Palaeotheriidae; Paleogene; Quercy phosphorites; skull anatomy
 
  Abstract

    A rear skull from the Quercy Phosphorites is described. It documents a new perissodactyl genus, likely assignable to the family Palaeotheriidae and probably paleogene of age. Owing to the lack of any tooth, this family assignment remains however somewhat hypothetical. The specimen is firstly characterised by the presence of a wide epitympanic sinus swelling and hollowing the squamosal shell and the post-glenoid process. This cavity might make up a peculiar pattern of improvement for the hearing apparatus by carrying out a kind of drum near the middle ear, whereas the bony tympanic remains barely bulged and forms but a few developed auditory bulla. This pattern appears an outcome of a trend observed with many palaeotheriids, such as Plagiolophus. Furthermore, the endocranial cast shows a rather high degree of gyrencephaly for a paleogene mammal. The prominent lambdoidal crest points out a powerful nape musculature and a lowered head bearing. Consequently, it is assumed that such an animal was probably living in somewhat open places, at the expense of rather tough vegetables. It might have been accordingly provided with a semi-hypsodont, cement covered, "plagiolophoid" dentition. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 28, Fasc. 1 (1999)

PDF
Etude de la Variabilité chez Lophiodon lautricense Noulet
Jean Sudre
Keywords: Cheek teeth; Eocene; Lophiodon; Variability

doi: 10.18563/pv.4.3.67-95
 
  Abstract

    The biometric and morphologie variability of the cheek teeth in the end-of-the-phylum species Lophiodon lautricense Noulet studied in this note, reposes on the observation of about 800 teeth. These were revealed to be little variable in absolute dimensions. The considerable morphologie variability in the upper premolars permitted the problem of the molarization process to be taken up. An hypothesis concerning the order of eruption of the cheek teeth is formulated based on an examination of a large number of milk dentitions. In conclusion, it is suggested that reservations be held on the value of dental characters classically used in systematics for the group under consideration. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 04, Fasc. 3 (1971)

PDF
 Les Affinités de Nyctereutes megamastoides (Pomel), canidé du gisement Villafranchien de Saint-Vallier (Drôme, France).
R. Martin
Keywords: Canidae; Nyctereutes; Villafranchian

doi: 10.18563/pv.4.2.39-58
 
  Abstract

    Nyctereutes megamastoides (Pomel) from the Villafranchian of the Auvergne and from Saint-Vallier presents cranial and dental characters sufficiently close to those of the late Pliocene canid from Perpignan (Roussillon), described by Depéret under the specific name of Canis donnezani belonging to the same genus Nyctereutes. The extinction of the European "Nyctereutes" group seems due to the too great alimentary specialization of this canid, whereas the Asiatic lineage represented in the Villafranchian by Nyctereutes sinensis Schlosser and at present by Nyctereutes procyonider Gray was able to maintain itself probably by means of a profound change in its alimentary regime. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 04, Fasc. 2 (1971)

PDF
Les Gruiformes (Aves) des phosphorites du Quercy (France). 1. sous-ordre cariamae (Cariamidae et Phorusrhacidae), systématique et biostratigraphie.
Cécile Mourer-Chauviré
Keywords: Aves; Biostratigraphy; Birds; Cariamae; gruiformes; Quercy phosphorites; systematics
 
  Abstract

    The revision of the old collections of fossil birds from the “Phosphorites du Quercy” and the study of new material give the following results (Gruiformes, Cariamae) :  The humeri and most of the carpometacarpi described under the name Filholornis belong in Elaphrocnemus. The ulnae ascribed to Fïlholornis belong in Idiornis. Most of the post-cranial elements of the genera Elaphrocnemus and Idiornis are described and show great similarities with recent Cariamidae and Opisthocomidae, and fossil Bathornithinae.  A new genus and a new species, Oblitavis insolitus, are created in the sub-family Idiornithinae; two new species are described in the genera Elaphrocnemus (E. brodkorbz) and Idiornis (I. itardiensis), and the species Elaphrocnemus gracilis is transferred to the genus Idiornis.  The genus Propelargus Lydekker is transferred from the family Ciconiidae to Cariamidae.  A new generic name, Occitaniavis, is created for the species Geranopsis elatus, which belong in Cariamidae, while the type-species of the genus, Geranopsis hastingsiae, is a member of the Gruidae.  The affinities between the Quercy avifauna and the Neotropical one is emphasized by the occurrence of Phorusrhacidae, previously known only from the Cenozoic of South America and the Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene of North America. Thanks to the material collected during the new excavations, the stratigraphical position of most of the species is stated precisely, and evolutionary lineages are outlined. This study shows that the suborder Cariamae, presently restricted to two South American genera, was already extremely diversified during the Eocene, and widespread in Europe and North America. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 13, Fasc. 4 (1983)

PDF