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Archosauriform teeth from the upper Triassic of Saint Nicolas-de-Port (Northeastern France).
Pascal Godefroit and Gilles Cuny
Keywords: Archosauriforms; Graoullyodon hacheti; Saint-Nicolas-de-port; Teeth; Upper Triassic
 
  Abstract

    The Late Triassic locality of Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (Meurthe-et-Moselle, France) has yielded numerous isolated teeth belonging to archosauriform reptiles. The following tooth groups can be identified: heterodont phytosaurs, the pterosaur Eudimorphodon, the prosauropod dinosaur Plateosaurus, three types of putative ornithischian teeth and 13 types of carnivorous Archosauriformes indet. Apparent venom-conducting teeth belonging to a new taxon of ?Archosauriformes (Graoullyodon hacheti nov. gen. nov. sp.) are also described. From a palaeogeographical point of view, the ornithischian teeth from Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (if their attribution is confirmed) are the oldest fossils of this group in Europe. The biostratigraphic distribution of the tooth forms mostly suggests a Late Norian or Early Rhaetian (depending on current interpretations) age of the deposits, but do not provide more precisions than fossils previously described from the area. The dietary habits and, consequently, the palaeoecological relationships of the different vertebrate groups discovered at Saint-Nicolas-de-Port are tentatively established: the ornithischian and prosauropod teeth reflect a herbivorous diet, whereas the other archosauriform teeth are probably from camivores or omnivores.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 26, Fasc. 1-4 (1997)

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The late Miocene percrocutas (Carnivora,Mammalia) of Madedonia, Greece.
George D. Koufos
Keywords: Biochronology; Carnivora; Comparisons; Dinocrocuta; Greece; Late Miocene; Mammalia
 
  Abstract

    Some new material of percrocutas from the late Miocene of Axios valley (Macedonia, Greece) is studied. They have been found in the locality of "Pentalophos 1" (PNT). The material has been described and compared with the known late Miocene percrocutas of Eurasia. This comparison indicates that it can be identified as Dinocrocuta gigantea (SCHLOSSER, 1903). A maxilla of a percrocuta, named ”Hyaena" salonicae, was found in the same area (Andrews, 1918). "Hyaena" salonicae is smaller than the PNT material. It is also compared with other material from Eurasia while its taxonomic and age problems are discussed. It belongs to Dinocrocuta and shows close relationships with D. robusta and D. senyureki; its age can be considered as late Vallesian-early Turolian. The age of the locality PNT is also discussed and a possible Vallesian age is proposed for it. 


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Published in Vol. 24, Fasc. 1-2 (1995)

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Description des rongeurs Pliocènes de la faune du Mont-Hélène (Pyrénées-Orientales, France), nouveau jalon entre les faunes de Perpignan (Serrat-d'en-Vacquer) et de Sète.
Jean-Pierre Aguilar, Marc Calvet and Jacques Michaux
Keywords: Chronology; Climatology; France; Mont-Hélène; Pliocene; Rodents
 
  Abstract

    The Mont-Hélène's fauna [Pyrénées-Orientales, France], includes 15 species of rodents with a new one, Occitanomys montheleni n. sp. among the 9 species of the Murids which are listed. The uncommon Cricetid, Blancomys neglectus, is well represented in the fauna. Peculiarities of the population referred to Slephanomys cf. donnezaniare discussed. The locality a fissure filling may be the oldest one of Tabianian age known in Southern France. The diversity of the Murids gives evidence of a subtropical climate and of a diversified environment which may be linked to the spreading of the coastal plain following the filling up of the Roussillon Neogene Basin. 


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Published in Vol. 16, Fasc. 3 (1986)

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Artiodactyla from the early Eocene of Kyrgyzstan
Alexander Averianov
Keywords: Artiodactyla; Asia; Diacodexeidae; Eocene; Kyrgyzstan
 
  Abstract

    Isolated upper cheek teeth of the primitive artiodactyl Diacodexis sp., upper molars of Eolantianius russelli gen. et sp. nov. (Diacodexeidae), two lower molars tentatively referred to Eolantianius russelli gen. et sp. nov., and astragali of Diacodexeidae indet. are described from the early Eocene (late Ypresian) of locality Andarak 2 in Kyrgyzstan. 


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Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Analysis of changing diversity patterns in Cenozoic land mammal age faunas, South America
Larry G. Marshall and Richard L. Cifelli
Keywords: Cenozoic; Chronofaunas; diversity; Equilibrium theory; Extinction; Land mammal faunas; Origination; South America
 
  Abstract

    Comparison of various measurements of taxonomic evolution using stratigraphic range data for orders, families and genera of land mammals indicates several means by which deficiencies of the South American fossil record (e.g., presence of hiatuses, unequal temporal and geographic representation of ages, unequal systematic treatment) may be normalized, thus permitting a less distorted appreciation of diversity pattern and trend. Initial radiation of native taxa resulted in a relative equilibrium by early Eocene time. Subsequent increases in absolute diversity were apparently induced by immigration at the family level and by environmental factors at the generic level. Miocene through Pleistocene phases of faunal stability, herein characterized as chronofaunas, are punctuated by rapid turnover events resulting from a complex of factors, including adaptive radiation of immigrant taxa into unoccupied eco-space; environmental and concomitant habitat change induced by orogenic events of the Andes; and biotic interactions between native and immigrant taxa, including competition and prey naivete. The first two factors account for major faunal transitions in the South American middle and late Tertiary; immigration-induced turnover may have been of greater importance in shaping the character of the fauna upon the Great American Interchange and the arrival of man in the Neotropics 


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Published in Vol. 19, Fasc. 4 (1990)

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A primitive Emballonurid bat (Chiroptera, Mammalia) from the Earliest Eocene of England
Jerry J. Hooker
Keywords: bats; Early Eocene; Emballonuridae; Origins; Phylogeny
 
  Abstract

    A new genus, Eppsillycteris, is erected for Adapisorex? allglicus COOPER, 1932, from the earliest Eocene Blackheath Beds of Abbey Wood, London, England. Various derived character states indicate that it belongs to the order Chiroptera (bats) rather than to the extinct "insectivore" family Adapisoricidae. Other derived character states are shared with fossil and modern members of the family Emballonuridae. Placement of the new genus in this family extends the record of the Emballonuridae back in time by about 10 million years. It is the earliest record of a modern bat family and one of the earliest bats. This implies that the differentiation of at least some modern bat families took place in the Palaeocene, where no authenticated records of bats yet exist. The primitive characters of the earliest bats make the family Nyctitheriidae an unlikely stem group for the order Chiroptera. A tentative plausible alternative exists in some unnamed upper molars from the Palaeocene of Walbeck, Germany. Wyollycteris chalix, described as a bat from the Late Palaeocene of Wyoming, U,S.A., fits better in the family Nyctitheriidae. 


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Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Premier catalogue des specimens-types Paléontologiques déposés dans les collections de l'Université de Montpellier II (Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc)
Bernard Marandat
Keywords: Collections; Inventory; Type specimens; University Montpelllier II
 
  Abstract

    More than 400 paleontological type-specimens housed in the Montpellier University collections have been inventoried in this catalogue which includes charophytes, Paleozoic plants, brachiopodes, molluscs, arthropodes and vertebrates (selachians, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). The vertebrates have been treated exhaustively in the catalogue and one can consider that it includes most of the type specimens deposited in the Montpelier II collections. 


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Published in Vol. 23, Ext (1994)

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Critical comments on the genus Propachynolophus Lemoine, 1891 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equoidea)
 
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: Eocene; Eurohippus; Pachynolophus; Propalaeotherium; tooth morphology

doi: 10.18563/pv.41.1.e3
 
  Abstract

    Abstract
     The validity of Propachynolophus Lemoine, 1891, supposedly an intermediate between Hyracotherium Owen, 1841 and Pachynolophus Pomel, 1847, has been questioned for a long time. A detailed analysis of features on which this genus is based further supported by a formal cladistic analysis demonstrates that Propachynolophus is not a valid taxon. The type species, “Propachynolophus gaudryi Lemoine, 1891” shall be assigned to Propalaeotherium Gervais, 1849, under the new combination Propalaeotherium gaudryi (Lemoine, 1891). “Pachynolophus maldani Lemoine, 1878”, later assigned to Propachynolophus, typifies the new genus Orolophus, under the binomen Orolophus maldani (Lemoine, 1878). The other referred species, “Propachynolophus levei Hooker, 1994” and “P. remyi Checa-Soler, 1997” are poorly documented, and both species shall be provisionally referred to as “Hyracotherium levei (Hooker, 1994) and “Hyracotherium remyi (Checa-Soler, 1997), pending new discoveries.
     
      


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in press

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S.I. Data
Norselaspis glacialis n.g., n.sp, et les relations phylogénétiques entre les kiaeraspidiens (Osteostraci) du dévonien inférieur du Spitsberg.
Philippe Janvier
Keywords: Devonian; kiaeraspids; Osteostraci; Spitsbergen
 
  Abstract

    The anatomy of Norselaspis glacialis n.g., n.sp., a primitive kiaeraspidian from the Lower Devonian of Spitsbergen, is described on the basis of spécimens studied by grinding sections or prepared with dilute formic acid. This study yielded some new anatomical details, including the presence of a canal prolonging posteromedially the canal alloted to the facial nerve by Stensiö. This posterior prolongation of the « facial canal ›› into the posterolateral part of the labyrinth cavity is consistent with the hypothesis put forward by Allis, Lindström, Jefferies and Whiting, that this canal housed the glossopharyngeus nerve. Furthermore, in N. glacialis, the foramen usually referred to as the foramen for the œsophagus opens posteriorly into a cavity in the postbranchial wall, referred to here as the intramural cavity, and which is interpreted as having housed the heart. Consequently, the œsophagus probably accompanied the dorsal aorta through the aortic canal. Finally, the foramen generally interpreted as having transmitted the ventral afferent arterial trunk is here considered as having housed the hepatic vein, which emptied into the venous sinus of the heart. The ventral afferent arterial trunk may thus have passed through the former «œsophageal ›› foramen.
    The problem of the position of the dorsal nerves in the Osteostraci is discussed, and it is suggested that the three foremost nerve canals opening into the oralobranchial cavity housed the maxillary ramus of the trigeminus, the facial nerve and the glossopharyngeus nerve respectively. The mandibular ramus of the trigeminus must have accompanied one of the two foremost nerves, but for the moment it is impossible to decide which.
    The problem of the nature of the interbranchial crests of the Osteostraci is briefly discussed. Comparison with the branchial apparatus of the Petromyzontida does not support the hypothesis that the interbranchial crests are part of the branchial arches, incorporated into the endoskeletal shield. A different hypothesis is proposed, that the branchial skeleton of the Osteostraci was situated entirely inside the oralobranchial cavity, and was attached to the endoskeletal shield only by the ventromedial processes. The grooves classically allotted to the efferent branchial arteries would thus have housed extrabranchial arteries, branching off from the dorsal aorta, and irrigating the ventral branchial musculature.
    A phylogeny and a classification of the kiaeraspidians are proposed. The evolution of this monophyletic group is characterized by, e.g., reduction of cornual processes, shortening of the abdominal division of the shield, subdivision of the lateral fields, and enlargement of the supraoral fossae.
    The phylogenetic position of the kiaeraspidians within the Osteostraci remains uncertain. Their sister-group may be either the benneviaspidiens or the thyestidians, or Thyestes alone (in which case they would have to be included within the thyestidians). 


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Published in Vol. 11, Fasc. 2-3 (1981)

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Historical and new perspectives on the parataxonomyof fossil eggs.
Monique Vianey-Liaud and Darla Zelenitsky
Keywords: amniotic eggshells; Parataxonomy
 
  Abstract

    A critical review on the literature about the parataxonomy of amniote eggshells reasserts the great interest of this systematics tool for the progress of dinosaur eggshell paleontology. However, shedding light on its limits, we propose to give up the use of the basic types - morphotypes key system. 


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Published in Vol. 32, Fasc. 2-4 (2003)

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Paleogene faunal assemblage fron  Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca Province, Argentina).
Guillermo M. Lopez
Keywords: Argentina; Faunal assemblage; Mammalia; Middle Eocene; Reptilia
 
  Abstract

    The Paleogene faunal assemblage from Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Argentina), is here presented, both in its geological and systematic aspects. The fossil bearing levels are referred to the Geste Formation (Pastos Grandes "Group"). The described specimens belong to the Classes Reptilia (Orders Crocodylia, Serpentes and Chelonii) and Mammalia (three taxa from the Superorder Marsupialia, representatives of the Orders Edentata, Condylarthra, Pyrotheria and Astrapotheria, and six families of the Order Notoungulata). This fauna is referred to the Mustersan Age, which in Patagonia represents the Middle Eocene. Such chronologic assignment is based on the presence of characteristic taxa, their evolutionary stage and on stratigraphic evidence. Finally, a brief comparison with other faunal assemblages from the Early Tertiary of Argentina and Chile, is presented. 


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Published in Vol. 26, Fasc. 1-4 (1997)

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Diversity of triconodont mammals from the early Cretaceous of North Africa-affinities of the Amphilestids
Denise Sigogneau-Russell
Keywords: amphilestines; Early Cretaceous; gobiconodontines; North Africa; Teeth; triconodonts
 
  Abstract

    The mammalian fauna (represented only by isolated teeth) from the early Cretaceous of Morocco includes a number of non-'therian' specimens, characterized by the antero-posterior alignement of the main molar cusps. This assemblage is very heterogenous, including forms (among them Gobiconodon palaios sp. nov.) that can be related to Laurasian triconodonts and several forms so far known only in this part of Gondwana (among them Kryptotherium polysphenos gen. et sp. nov.). The latter, in particular, exemplifies the diversity of the mammalian dental morphology in the Mesozoic, often largely underestimated. In the last part of this paper, the 'therian' affinity of the 'amphilestids' is discussed, on the basis of the arrangement of molar cusps, the interlocking mechanism and the occlusal pattem. 


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Published in Vol. 32, Fasc. 1 (2003)

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Cryptomerix Schlosser, 1886, Tragulidé de l'oligocène d'Europe ; relations du genre et considérations sur l'origine des ruminants.
Jean Sudre
Keywords: Archaic Ruminants; Paleobiogeography; Quercy phosphorites; systematics; Tragulids
 
  Abstract

    The genus Cryptomeryx SCHLOSSER, 1886, inusited during a long period, has been discovered in Lower and Middle Oligocene localities of the Quercy region (South-West France). This new material, as well as specimens from the old collections referred to Cryptomeryx, are described; their study, allows us precising the definition of the genus, and confirming its allocation to the Tragulidae family. The type species of the genus, Crypmmeryx gaudryi (= Lophiomeryx gaudryi FILHOL, 1877), occurs in several localities at the base of the Middle Oligocene (Itardies, La Plante 2, Roqueprune 2, Soulce, Herrlingen 1). The new species C. matsoui n. sp. has been defined in the older locality of Mas de Got (top of Lower Oligocene). It is possible that the species Pseudamphimeryx decedens STEHLIN, 1910 pertains to the same genus. Also to the Tragulids must be referred the monospecific genus Iberomeryx (I. parvus GABOUNIA, 1964) from Upper Oligocene of Benara (Georgie, URSS), with which Cryptomeryx is related. These genera are not direct ancestors of Miocene tragulids; their occurrence in the Western European Oligocene results from a first immigration wawe of the family. These Tragulids are one of the most archaic groups of Ruminants. They are probably derived from a primitive stock which had acquired in Asia the selenodont condition of the dentition. 


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Published in Vol. 14, Fasc. 1 (1984)

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Muridae (Rodentia) du Pliocène supérieur d'Espagne et du midi de la France.
Jacques Michaux
Keywords: Anthracomys meini; Castillomys crusafonti; Pliocene; Rodents; Valerymys ellenbergeri

doi: 10.18563/pv.3.1.1-25
 
  Abstract

    The murid fauna of the terminal Pliocene of southwest Europe is rich in at least eight genera and ten species. With the species belonging to the genera Apodemus, Rhagapodemus, and Stephanomys not being studied here, the study of the other murids resulted for one thing in the description of three new genera and three new species: Castillomys crusafonti n. g., n. sp., Occitanomys brailloni n. g., n. sp., Anthracomys meini n. sp., Valerymys ellenbergerí (THALER) n. g., and for another thing in the recognition of a form hitherto unknown in this region, Micromys praeminutus KRETZOI. Systematic study has shown that certain species of the terminal Pliocene fauna had their ancestors in the Turolian fauna presently known in Spain. The evolutionary lineages thereby recognized have been studied more in detail and a list of the evolutionary tendencies of the dendal characters has been given. A chart of the probable phyletic relationships between the different murids of the Pliocene faunas of southwest Europe (With the genus Rhagapodemus and Apodemus dominans being excluded) is given in conclusion of this work. 


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Published in Vol. 03, Fasc. 1 (1969)

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Contributions à l'étude du gisement Miocène supérieur de Montredon (Hérault). Les grands mammifères. 8 - Analyse paléoécologique de la faune mammalienne
Serge Legendre
Keywords: France; Mammalia; Montredon; Paleoecology; Upper Miocene
 
  Abstract

    The species diversity of the mammalian fauna from Montredon (Hérault, France, late Miocene) is examined in terms of richness and abundance. A cenogramic analysis of the fossil mammalian community suggests the prevalence of open habitats, with the presence of marshes and of a poorly developed galery forest, and a climate rather warm and dry. 


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Published in Vol. 18, Ext (1988)

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Mode de vie et affinités de Paschatherium (Condylarthra, Hyopsopontidae) d'après ses os du tarse
Marc Godinot, Thierry Smith and Richard Smith
Keywords: Astragalus; Calcaneum; Condylarthra; Eocene; Functional morphology; Paschatherium; Phylogeny
 
  Abstract

    Tarsals that can be confidently attributed to Paschatheríum dolloi from Dormaal (Belgium) are described. The astragalus is short; its broad neck is set at an angle of 30 degrees to the trochlea. The trochlea is pulley-shaped and proximally extended. There is no astragalar foramen. The medial tibial facet extends distally in a cup deeply excavated in the neck and buttressed. The sustentacular facet extends toward the navicular facet but is not fully confluent with it. The calcaneum bears a proximo-distally extended proximal facet for the astragalus. A relatively large peroneal tubercle projects from the body, and is situated distally. Functionally, the trochlea indicates extensive flexion-extension movements of the foot. Calcaneo-astragalar facets indicate sliding and rotation between the two tarsals. The inclination of the navicular facet suggests frequent foot inversion. The peroneal tubercle reflects good muscular capacities for foot rotation. Overall morphology is interpreted as a scansorial adaptation similar to that of sciurids.Comparisons are made with the tarsals of Macrocranion vandebroeki from Dormaal and Hyopsodus paulus from the Bridgerian of Wyoming. Some similarities between the astragali of Paschatherium and Macrocraníon (trochlea) are interpreted as convergences for rapid locomotion. However absence of mobility at the lower ankle and midtarsal joints in M. vandebroekzi suggests that this species was cursorial, as is known for M. tenerum from Messel. Similarities in the calcanea of Paschatherium and Hyopsodus are probably the result of close phylogenetic relations, and confirm the placement of Paschatherium in the hyopsodontids. The differences in the calcanea of Paschatherium and Macrocranion underline that Paschatherium is distinct from erinaceomorph insectivores. The differences in astragalar morphology between Paschatherium and Hyopsodus show that a marked adaptive divergence separates the two genera. We speculate about the common occurrence of a deep tibial cup (“cotylar fossa”) and a pulley-shaped trochlea in Paschatherium and hyracoids, suggesting that an adaptive scenario similar to that having led to Paschatherium (scansoriality) might explain the acquisition of the peculiar hyracoid tarsal characters; such a scenario contradicts the concept of Pantomesaxonia. Other peculiar characters of Hyopsodus suggest that hyopsodontids might be given more consideration in the search for hyracoid (and tethythere) origins. 


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Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Fossil snakes from the Palaeocene of São José de Itaboraí, Brazil Part III. Ungaliophiinae, Booids incertae sedis, and Caenophidia. Summary, update and discussion of the snake fauna from the locality
Jean-Claude Rage
Keywords: booid-grade incertae sedis; Brazil; Caenophidia; New taxa; Palaeocene; Russellophiidae; Snakes; tropidophiids; Ungaliophiinae

doi: 10.18563/pv.36.1-4.37-73
 
  Abstract

    Aside from Madtsoiidae, anilioids, and Boidae that were studied previously, the middle Palaeocene of ltaborai (BraziI) has produced Ungaliophiinae ("tropidophiids"), booid-grade snakes incertae sedis, and a possible Russellophiidae (Caenophidia) that are described in the present article. This article is the third and final report on the snakes from the locality. The Ungaliophiinae (Paraungaliophis pricei gen. et sp. nov.) are rare whereas the booid-grade snakes incertae sedis (ltaboraiophis depressus gen. et sp. nov., Paulacoutophis perplexus gen. et sp. nov.) are more frequent. A single vertebra is referred to the Russellophiidae (Caenophidia) with reservation. An update of the whole fauna of snakes from ltaborai is provided. Hechtophis austrinus that was tentatively referred to the erycine Boidae is now regarded as a Boidae incertae sedis. Most snakes from Itaborai are known only from the locality. Astonishingly, only the ailioids Coniophis cf. C. precedens gives possible evidence of interchanges between South and North America. The fauna of snakes from Itaborai, as well as the other Palaeocene faunas of snakes from South America are distinct from those of the Cretaceous and the Eocene of South America; they appear to be more different from the Cretaceous faunas than from those of the Eocene. The fauna from Itaborai is the richest and most diverse assemblage of snakes from the Palaeocene worldwide; it shares only a few taxa with other Palaeocene localities. 


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Published in Vol. 36, Fasc. 1-4 (2008)

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Sur le plus ancien Lagomorphe Européen et la "Grande Coupure" Oligocène de Stehlin
Nieves Lopez-Martinez and Louis Thaler
Keywords: Grande Coupure; Lagomorphe; Oligocene
 
  Abstract

    Pour la première fois un spécimen de lagomorphe a été récolté en Quercy. L'intérêt de ce fossile tient surtout à son âge géologique inattendu, qui recule considérablement la date de première apparition en Europe de cet ordre de mammifère, Ceci nous paraît justifier une nouvelle réflexion sur la « grande coupure» oligocène, 


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Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 3-4 (1975)

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Revision des faunes de vertébrés du site de Provenchères-sur-Meuse (Trias terminal, Nord-Est de la France)
Gilles Cuny
Keywords: Amphibians; Fishes; Reptiles; Rhetian; Triassic
 
  Abstract

    Revision of ancient collections and study of new material from Provenchères-sur-Meuse (Rhaetian) lead to signíficant changes in the faunal list of this site. This bring to us important information about the effect of the rhaetian transgression on the evolution of the faunas at this period of time. However, study of
    vertebrate microremains is always difficult and some points remain obscure, like the origin of the prosauropods which yield some remains at Provenchères-sur-Meuse and the survival in Europe during the Rhaetian of temnospondyl arnphibians different from the Plagiosauridae.

      


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Published in Vol. 24, Fasc. 1-2 (1995)

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Les gangas (Aves, Columbiformes, Pteroclidae) du Paléocène et du Miocène inférieur de France.
Cécile Mourer-Chauviré
Keywords: Birds; evolution; Lower Miocene; New taxa; Oligocene; Paleoecology; Paulhiac; Quercy phosphorites; Saint-Gérand-Ie-Puy; Sandgrouse; Upper Eocene
 
  Abstract

    The two species of Sandgrouse from Quercy, Pterocles validus MILNE-EDWARDS and P. larvatus MILNE-EDWARDS, are ascribed to the genus Archaeoganga MOURER-CI-IAUVIRÉ which includes a third, very large species, A. pinguis. The sandgrouse of Saint-Gérand-le-Puy, Pterocles sepultus MILNE-EDWARDS, is ascribed to a new genus, Lepzoganga. This form appears in the Upper Oligocene of Quercy, in Pech Desse and Pech du Fraysse localities, and is still present in the Lower Miocene of Saint-Gérand-le-Puy and Paulhiac. Recent sandgrouse live in semidesert or desert areas. The indications provided by mammal and bird faunas in the localities where sandgrouse were found, confirm that the paleoenvironment was open and arid. The morphological study of these fossils indicates that, in the Upper Eocene, the Pteroclidae were already completely individualized with respect to Charadriiformes.
      


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Published in Vol. 22, Fasc. 2-3 (1993)

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