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Mammals and stratigraphy of the continental mammal-bearing Quarternary of South America
Larry G. Marshall, Annalisa Berta, Robert Hoffstetter, Rosendo Pascual, Osvaldo A. Reig, Miguel Bombin and Alvaro Mones
Keywords: Geochronology; Mammalia; Quaternary; South America; Stratigraphy
 
  Abstract

    Previous chronological arrangements of South American Quaternary land mammal faunas are appraised on the basis of current geological and paleontological data. Three South American late Pliocene-Pleistocene land mammal ages are conventionally recognized, from oldest to youngest, the Uquian, Ensenadan, and Lujanian ; all are defined on Argentine faunas.

         The Uquian is based fundamentally and historically on the fauna from the Uquía Formation in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina. Important known formations in Argentina yielding Uquian Age faunas include the sub-surface Puelche Formation (or Puelchense) near the city of Buenos Aires, and the Barranca de Los Lobos and Vorohué Formations between Mar del Plata and Miramar, Buenos Aires Province. A tentative subdivision is propos-ed for the Uquian into three subages based on knowledge of the Mar del Plata-Miramar sequence, from oldest to youngest, the Barrancalobian, Vorohuean, and Sanandresian. In Argentina the Uquian is presently marked by the first known record of Scelidodon, Hydrochoeropsis, Ctenomys, Canidae, Ursidae, Gomphotheriidae, Equidae, Tapiridae, Camelidae, Cervidae, and the last known record of Thylatheridium, Thylophorops, Dankomys, Eumysops, Pithanotomys, Eucoelophorus, Hegetotheriidae, Sparassocynidae, and Microtragulidae.

    The Ensenadan Age is based on the fauna from the Ensenada Formation near the city of Ensenada, Buenos Aires Province. In Argentina the Ensenadan is marked by the first known record of Lomaphorus, Neothoracophorus, Plaxhaplous, Cavia, Lyncodon, Lutra, Galera, Smilodon, Dicotyles, Lama, Vicugna, the last known record of Orthomyctera, and the only known record of Brachynasua.

         Typícal beds of late Lujanian Age in Argentina consist of fluvial deposits occupying stream channels, and shallow basins, often incised into beds of early Lujanian (i.e. Bonaerian of early workers) and Ensenadan Age. The Lujanian Age is based on a fauna from beds along the Rio Luján, about 65 km west of the city of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Province. The Lujanian in Argentina is marked by the first record of Equus, Chlamyphorus, and Holochilus, and the last record of Megatherioidea, Glyptodontoidea, Arctodus (=Arctotherium), Smilodon, Litopterna, Notoungulata, Proboscidea, Equidae, Morenelaphus, and Palaeolama.

       These land mammal ages are often difficult to recognize in other South American countries. The compositions of South American Pleistocene faunas vary with the environment. Some taxa were widely distributed in fossil deposits throughout the continent, but their occurrences need not reflect synchroneity. This is a result of changing climates and habitats in time. Consequently, proposed intracontinental correlations need confirmation based on magnetostratigraphy and a radioisotope time scale. Paleontologic characterizations of these land mammal ages (i.e. first and last record, and guide fossils) are useful for much of Argentina, but extensions to most of the other parts of South America are at best tenuous.

    The majority of known non-Argentine Pleistocene faunas are believed to be Lujanian in age. Possible non Argentine early Pleistocene (Uquian) faunas include Ayo Ayo and Anzaldo in Bolivia, and Cocha Verde in southern Columbia. A possible middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan or early Lujanian) fauna is the Chichense of Ecuador. Paleomagnetic and radioisotopic date (MacFadden et al., 1983) clearly indicate that the greater part of the Tarija fauna (Bolivia) is Ensenadan in age.

      The end of the Pleistocene and beginning of the Holocene in South America is marked by extinction of nearly all large mammalian herbivores and their specialized large predators. Radiocarbon age determinations suggest that large scale extinctions of megafauna occurred between 15,000 and 8,000 yrs. B.P. (years before present). 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 14, Ext (1984)

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A new species of Propalaeotherium (Palaeotheriidae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Middle Eocene locality of Aumelas (Hérault, France).
Jean-Albert Remy, Gabriel Krasovec and Bernard Marandat
Keywords: Eocene; new species; Palaeotheriidae; Propalaeotherium

doi: 10.18563/pv.40.2.e1
 
  Abstract

    A new Propalaeotherium species, clearly distinct from the genus Eurohippus, is described. It is characterized by having a similar size as P. voigti from the German Geiseltal localities (MP 11 to MP 13 reference-level), but differs in several features suggesting a slighty more derived morphology. It presents indeed less brachyodont crowns with less prominent and less elevated cingula, slightly larger relative surface of premolars, and a more marked metaconid splitting on cheek teeth. This new species is unknown from other European localities except the nearby Saint-Martin de Londres locality which has been considered older than the MP 13 level. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol.40-2 (2016)

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S.I. Data
La région des phosphorites du Quercy
A. Cavaillé
Keywords: Quercy phosphorites
 
  Abstract

    L'exploitation des phosphates s'est produite surtout de 1890 à 1914 de Saint-Antonin à Cajarc, sur le Causse de Limogne, dont l'histoire géologique et morphologique peut expliquer les conditions de gisement du minerai, et aussi la découverte des nombreux, variés et beaux fossiles qu'on a extrait des poches en même temps que la phosphorite. Le Causse de Limogne est le nom donné par les géographes au plateau calcaire, faisant partie des Causses du Quercy, et compris entre la vallée du Lot au Nord et celle de "Aveyron au Sud". En fait, le nom de "causse" désigne localement un terroir, un paysage, à sous-sol de calcaire, à sol peu épais, qui s'oppose aux sols argileux des « terreforts » et aux sols légers et profonds des "boulbènes". Chaque communauté agricole distinguait ainsi son causse, par exemple le causse de Caylus, le causse de Limogne ou le causse de Cajarc. C'est par extension que l'appellation Causse de Limogne désigne tout un petit pays. La présence des poches à phosphate déborde un peu vers le Nord la vallée du Lot, et vers l'Est le Causse de Limogne proprement dit (Causse de Villeneuve).   


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 06, Fasc. 1-2 (1974)

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The Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia) from the Oligocene of Ulantatal (inner Mongolia, China)
Monique Vianey-Liaud, Norbert Schmidt-Kittler and Laurent Marivaux
Keywords: Adaptive radiation; Ctenodactylidae; Mongolia; Oligocene; Rodents
 
  Abstract

    This paper proposes a systematic revision of the Oligocene Mongolian Ctenodactylidae, on the basis of abundant material obtained by screen/washing operations in stratified localities of the Ulantatal area (Inner Mongolia) (UTL1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 6 & 8). A Chinese-German team has collected several thousands of isolated rodent teeth, and a number of fragmentary jaws. A new genus is identified (Alashania nov. gen. tengkoliensis nov. sp.), and eight former species are reevaluated, Karakoromys decessus, Tataromys sigmodon, T. minor, T. plicidens, Yindirtemys ulantatalensis, Y. bohlini, Y. deflexus, with several synonymies. A new Yindirtemys species is described: Y. shevyrevae nov. sp. and another one close to that: Y. aff. shevyrevae nov. sp. Four new species, which are rare in the localities, remain in open nomenclature because they are not well-represented. Yindirtemys differs from the other genera by the permanence of crescentic structures, while the other genera show a general reduction of the trigonoid area (= anterior valley). We define a range of size variation for each well documented population. Although the dental morphology shows a wide range of variation, given that transitional morphologies occur in a single locality, it is possible to provide a clear definition for most species. We show that dental patterns of the different genera can be derived from the pattern of Karakoromys. As a number of Tataromyinae have been determined in several localities from China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia, usually on the basis of scarce material, or surface collections, the present study would be used to re-evaluate their attribution inasmuch as the taxa are now placed in the Oligocene stratigraphy. The diversity of sizes and forms reflects the adaptive radiation of the family during the Oligocene, within a forested environment where the vegetation was probably abundant. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 34, Fasc. 3-4 (2006)

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Cervus elaphus rossii (Mammalia, Artiodactyla), a new endemic sub-species from the Middle Pleistocene of Corsica
Elisabeth Pereira
Keywords: Cervus elaphus; Corsica; Endemism; Pleistocene
 
  Abstract

    Several endemic deer remains from the Middle Pleistocene deposits of the Castiglione cave (Oletta, Haute-Corse) are examined here. A morphometric analysis allows to relate them to a new insular subspecies Cervus elaphus rossii. The bones were compared with those of the mainland early Middle Pleistocene subspecies Cervus elaphus acoronatus Beninde and the European species Cervus elaphus Linné (Late Middle Pleistocene and Upper Pleistocene forms (continental and insular)). The Castiglione fossil shows peculiar morphofunctional features in its appendicular skeleton suggesting a morphological convergence with certain Bovidae. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 30, Fasc. 3-4 (2001)

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Les mammifères de Rians (Eocène inférieur, Provence)
Marc Godinot
Keywords: Eocene; Mammals; Provence; Rians
 
  Abstract

    The fossil mammals discovered in the quarry of Rians (Sparnacian, Provence) are described. Among these forms, Hyracotherium is interesting because of the little molarization of the lower premolars and its small size, and Diacodexis by its small size and very primitive astragalus ; they may be the most primitive representatives of their respective orders. Also, Proviverra eisenmanni n. sp. is the smallest and most primitive hyaenodontid yet described. Hyopsodus itinerans is the first species of this genus described France. Among other rare fossils is a new species of bat, a small palaeoryctid, and other forms not yet identified. Marsupials are varied. Several new species are present among the rodents. The fauna is well-balanced and rich in small hyopsodontid condylarths. It is stratigraphically situated at the
    Dormaal reference-level, at the base of the early Eocene, and is considered equivalent to the late Clarkforkian of North America. The hypothesis is presented that new forms appearing at the beginning of the Wasatchian in North America migrated, in fact, at that time from Europe.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 10, Fasc. 2 (1981)

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Mammifères de l'Ilerdien Moyen (Eocène inférieur) des Corbières et du Minervois (Bas-Languedoc, France). Systématique, Biostratigraphie, Corrélations.
Bernard Marandat
Keywords: Biostratigraphy; Corbières; correlations; Early Eocene; Ilerdian; Mammalia; Minervois; Paleobiogeography; Southern France
 
  Abstract

    Mammal-bearing localities have been discovered in the marine and lacustrine series of the middle Ilerdian (Lowermost Eocene) from Southem France (Minervois and Corbières). In the localities of Fordones, Monze, Fournès, and La Gasque, thirty mammal species have been identified. Among others, they include ischyromyid rodents (Microparamys and Pseudoparamys), paromomyid and adapid primates (Arcius and Donrussellia), new insectivores, condylarths, and a dyspternine pantolestid. These faunas provide new informations on the early Eocene Mesogean faunas of Rians and Palette. The assemblages of primates and rodents from Fordones support good  correlations with Palette which was recently placed near the standard-level of Dormaal (MP 7). In fact, Palette and Fordones could be even older than Dormaal. Consequently, there seems to be a relatively important temporal gap between the late Paleocene of Cernay and the Sparnacian of Dormaal. This gap could be partly filled with the Mesogean faunas of Palette, Fordones, and Silveirinha. On the basis of these new mammal faunas the marine middle Ilerdian is proved to be older than the Cuisian stage of the Paris Basin. With regards to the position of the Fordones fauna at the top of the NP 10 calcareous nannoplankton biozone, the westem European paleomammalogists Paleocene/Eocene boundary could be situated between the NP 9 and NP 10 biozones. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 20, Fasc. 2-3 (1991)

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Additions to the elasmobranch fauna from the upper Cretaceous of New Jersey (middle Maastrichtian, Navesink Formation)
Gerard R. Case and Henri Cappetta
Keywords: Elasmobranchs; New Jersey; new species; Upper Cretaceous; USA
 
  Abstract

    A recently discovered, almost complete specimen of a hybodont tooth, allows us to describe as a new species, fairly common, but usually fragmentary teeth in the Navesink Formation of New Jersey: Hybodus novojerseyensis nov. sp.
    Three additional taxa are also described : Heterodontus creamridgensis, Squalicorax sp. and Pseudocorax affinis which is noted for the first time in North America.
    The whole elasmobranch fauna of the Early Maastrichtian localities of New Jersey is reevaluated and several generic assignments are changed in comparison to the list previously published in 1975 (Cappetta
    & Case). 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 33, Fasc. 1-4 (2004)

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Les Périssodactyles (Mammalia) du gisement Bartonien supérieur de Robiac (Éocène moyen du Gard, Sud de la France)
Jean-Albert Remy
Keywords: Chasmotherium; new species; Palaeotheriidae; paleoenvironments

doi: 10.18563/pv.39.1.e3
 
  Abstract

    We present here a new updated counting of the perissodactyls of Robiac, the type locality of the MP 16 level of the biochronological scale of paleogene mammals and that of the Robiacian stage of Eocene Land Mammals Ages in Western Europe.
    The outcrop of Robiac consists actually of two 500m apart loci, Robiac-Nord and Robiac-Sud, considered of the same age according to the current discriminating power, and is dated from -38,7 MA after the last faunal, magnetostratigraphic and climatic calibrations.
    It has yielded a very abundant and rich of 21 taxa perissodactyl fauna, topped by the giant Lophiodon lautricense, last representative of the family Lophiodontidae, of which it is the last proved deposit. The Palaeotheriidae are much diversified with 5 genera and 9 species of "Pachynolophinae", 3 genera and 10 species of Palaeotheriinae. Nine taxa have been defined from Robiac: Chasmotherium depereti n. sp., Palaeotherium castrense robiacense Franzen, 1968, the genus Leptolophus Remy, 1965 with the species L. stehlini Remy, 1965 and L. magnus Remy, 1998, Anchilophus (Paranchilophus) jeanteti Remy, 2012, Metanchilophus chaubeti Remy, 2012, Lophiotherium robiacense Depéret, 1917 and Pachynolophus gaytei n. sp.
    The faunal Robiac cenogram with the associated flora testify to a hot, wet and forestal environment, likely corresponding to a short warming climatic phase; the broken up fossil bones should have been carried away and then gathered in swamp areas along the banks of a meandering river.
    The swarm of mammals of Robiac, the richest of contemporaneous deposits, has been followed by a drastic drop in perissodactyl diversity at the MP 17A level; a crisis which could have originated in a renewal of the global Eocene cooling. Fons 4, the type-locality of this level, is largely scarcer in perissodactyls and its cenogram testifies to a less diversified fauna, with on the whole smaller species, that likely means a cooler and drier climatic environment; a new perissodactyl diversification occurred but later.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol.39-1 (2015)

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The Gliridae (Mammalia) from the oligocene (MP24) of Gröben 3 in the folded molasse of southern Germany
Undine Uhlig
Keywords: Biostratigraphy; Cyrena Beds; folded molasse; Germany; Gliridae; level MP 24; Mammals; Oligocene; Palaeoecology
 
  Abstract

    This study describes four taxa of Gliridae from the Oligocene mammal locality Gröben 3: Gliravus tenuis BAI-ILO, 1975, Bransatoglis micio (MISONNE, 1957), B. planus (BAHLO, 1975) and B. heissigi n. sp. Gliravus tenuis from Gröben 3 is somewhat more advanced than the type population found in Heimersheim. This confirms previous research suggesting that Gröben 3 should be dated earlier than Heimersheim (MP 24). The first documented occurrence of B. mício around level MP 24 was found in Gröben 3. An abundance of tooth material from B. planus in Gröben 3 makes it possible, for the first time, to observe evolutionary stages within this species from MP 21 until MP 28. B. heissigi n. sp. is restricted to level MP 24. This species is located between B. mísonnei (MP 20 - 23) and Microdyromys praemurinus (MP 25 - 28). Within the lineage Bransatoglis bahloi - B. misonnei - B. heissigi, a decrease in size is noticeable.

      


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Published in Vol. 30, Fasc. 3-4 (2001)

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La morphologie dentaire des Thalattosuchia (Crocodylia, Mesosuchia).
Patrick Vignaud
Keywords: dental morphology; Dental types; feeding habits.; Jurassic; Metriorhynchidae; systematics; Teleosauridae; Thalattosuchia
 
  Abstract

    The tooth morphology of the Thalattosuchia (marine crocodilians from the Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous) is analysed. The Callovian from Poitou and the Kimmeridgian from Quercy have yielded many remains of Metriorhynchus, Steneosaurus and Machimosaurus. These remains allow us to study the variations of tooth morphology during ontogenic growth, tooth replacement and the location of the teeth. We have defined different tooth types for these genera. In Metriorhynchus, the two tooth types defined do not coincide with the two groups recognized in the Callovian (broad-skulled and narrow-skulled metriorhynchids) but reflect the prey preferences of these forms. In Steneosaurus and Machimosaurus the five tooth types deñned are in agreement with the main taxa known from the Bathonian to the Early Cretaceous. This study allows to precise the function and the prey preference of the Thalattosuchia during the Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 26, Fasc. 1-4 (1997)

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Rythme et modalités de l'évolution chez les rongeurs à la fin de l'Oligocène-leurs relations avec les changements de l'environnement.
Bernard Comte
Keywords: Environment; evolution; Oligocene; Rodents; systematics
 
  Abstract

    The analysis of oxygene isotope variations as well as paleobotanical data suggest that the Oligocene/Miocene boundary corresponds to a transitional period marked by floristical and climatic variations. During this period, the pyreneo-alpine tectonics has contribued to modify the geography and western Europe landscapes. Faunal changes (appearances, extinctions, migrations) are observed in different mammalian groups, notably in the rodents. A study of the evolutionary trends and patterns in paleogene rodents is involved for the period ranging from level MP 28 of the Late Oligocene to the Early Miocene, including the Oligo-Miocene boundary.
    The Rodents fauna from the sites of Venelles (Bouches-du-Rhône District, France) and Thezels (Lot, France), previously mentionned in litterature, have been studied. The first description of the Eomyidae of La Milloque (MP 29) has been completed. These faunas are compared to those from various localities dating from the considered period. In La Milloque, a new representative of the Eomys species is described next to a form close to Rhodanomys hugueneyae ENGESSER, 1987. It is the Eomys milloquensis nov. sp., the likely descendant of Eomys quercyi COMTE & VIANEY-LIAUD, 1987. Two new species are also described in Thezels: Eucricetodon thezelensis nov. sp., resulting from a likely and local evolution of Eucricetodon praecursor (SCHAUB, 1925) from La Milloque, which, in the same geographic area, could be at the origin of Eucricetodon hesperius ENGESSER, 1985 from Paulhiac. Plesiosminthus admyarion nov. sp., quite distinct from Plesiosminthus schaubi VIRET, 1926, which announces Plesiosminthus myarion SCHAUB 1930. Venelles 'Plesiosminthus schaubi population is considered as a sub-species, named Plesiosminthus schaubi meridionalis nov. subsp. New phylogenetic patterns are proposed. Among the Eomyidae, a quantification of various features of the M1-2/ crown (hypsodonty, degree of abrasion, occlusal angle, state of development of the I and V anticlines), and a comparison with the occlusal diagram of the other teeth among various other populations allows a more efficient separation of Eomys and Rhodanomys genera. In Western Europe, and within this period, it finally does not seem possible to gradually connect the genus Eomys to the genus Rhodanomys. The evolution of the Eomys quercyi - milloquensis lineage seems to underline a similar evolution to that which may have led from the Eomys to the Rhodanomys form. The latter which appears totally accomplished at level MP 29 of the Oligocene is considered as an immigrant. If we compare the most representative species of the Venelles, Thezels, and Coderet sites, (i.e. Rhodanomys, Eucricetodon, Adelomyarion, Peridyromys, Plesíosminthus), it becomes impossible to confirm their biochronological separation. The noticeable differences between the populations may be interpreted as geographical variations. An explanation to these variations, and to fauna's evolution during the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene can be found in the environmental modifications, supported by isotopic, paleobotanical and sedimentologic analysis. A tentative reconstruction of the environments is attempted by the cenogram method. The analysis of the fluctuations of fauna's diversity shows variations which may be correlated to a drop in temperature at MP 29, during the Late Oligocene, followed by an increase in temperature along with an aridity phenomenom, during the basal Miocene (MN O).The confrontation of various methods give the opportunity of reconstituting and comparing the evolution of the environment of three sequences of sites chosen from different regions. Ecological affinities of various rodents' species are being examined. It is possible to consider that the integration of all the conclusions resulting from this study should lead to an explanation to the evolution of rodents for the period around the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The site of Coderet- level 3- would be posterior to the latter, at the beginnig of the Miocene, and would mark the level MN 0 of the Aquitanian.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 29, Fasc. 2-4 (2000)

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Nouvelles données sur les mammifères du Thanétien et de l'Yprésien du bassin d'Ouarzazate (Maroc) et leur contexte stratigraphique.
Emmanuel Gheerbrant, Jean Sudre, Sevket Sen, Claude Abrial, Bernard Marandat, Bernard Sigé and Monique Vianey-Liaud
Keywords: early Paleogene; magnetostratigraphy; Mammals; Morocco; North Africa; Ouarzazatz basin; systematics
 
  Abstract

    New faunal and stratigraphical data on the vertebrates localities from the early Paleogene of the Ouarzazate Basin (Adrar Mgorn 1, Adrar Mgorn 1 bis et N'Tagourt 2), Morocco, are presented. A magnetostratigraphical study, the first for such early Paleogene Arabo-African mammal localities, and the discovery of probable remains of the nannofossil Discoaster support the Thanetian age of the Adrar Mgorn 1 site. The magnetostratigraphy suggests a slightly later age than was thought for the Paleogene formations of the local series of Tinerhir and for the vertebrate localities: late or latest Thanetian for Adrar Mgorn 1 and Adrar Mgorn 1 bis, middle Ypresian for N'Tagourt 2. It also indicates a lower position of the KT boundary in the series. Two tons of matrix recovered in the vertebrate sites have vielded new data on the micromammals. A damaged lower molar from N'Tagourt 2 is referable to Khamsaconus bulbosus  and supports the proboscidean affinities of this species and especially possible relationships with bunolophodont taxa such as elephantiforms. A lower molar from Adrar Mgorn 1 bis belongs to a new form which can be identified as a plesiadapiform or an euprimate close to Altiatlasius koulchii though significantly larger. A new material from Adrar Mgorn 1 illustrates a new dilambdodont adapisoriculid species which is referable to Garatherium : ?Garatherium todrae n. sp. Another species referred to Garatherium is known in the locality (?Garatherium n. sp.). Garatherium is a new lineage from the Ouarzazate basin which crosses the Paleocene-Eocene boundary together with Palaeoryctes, Didelphodontinae gen. and sp. 2, Todralestes, and Afrodon, and it is the first Paleocene-Eocene lineage identified outside of this basin (Garatheríum is based on a species from El Kohol, Algeria). Among the Paleocene-Eocene lineages from the Ouarzazate basin, it should be also mentioned a new possible carnassial form (carnivoran or creodont; Adrar Mgorn 1), and an upper molar of Cimolestes cf. incisus (Adrar Mgorn 1 bis). The upper molar THR 168 previously reported as from an indeterminate didelphodontine is here identified as the M1/ of Afrodon chleuhi. The micromammal faunas from the Ouarzazate basin are positioned in the global chronological framework of the mammal localities from the Paleogene of the Arabo-African domain. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 27, Fasc. 3-4 (1998)

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First evidence of an early Miocene marine teleostean fish fauna (otoliths) from la Paillade.(Montpellier,France)
Bettina Reichenbacher and Henri Cappetta
Keywords: Aquitanian; Biostratigraphy; La Paillade; marine deposits; Miocene; otoliths; Palaeoecology; Palaeogeography; Southern France; Teleostei
 
  Abstract

    A fossil fish fauna, based on 5533 otoliths, from the La Paillade locality at Montpellier is described and figured. The otolith-bearing marls correlate to mammal zone MN l (Aguilar, 1982), and thus represent the earliest Miocene. The fish fauna consists of 30 taxa belonging to 20 families. Two species are new: Dussumieria sittigi and Liza gaudanti. The predominant faunal element is the Lesueurigobius vicínalis-species complex, composing 73% of all investigated otoliths. The palaeoecological analysis reveals a marine to euryhaline fish fauna living under tropical to subtropical conditions in the transition zone littoral - sublittoral. Water depth probably was more than 10 m. The scarcity of pelagic físhes suggests that the habitat was either a sheltered bay and/or far away from the open sea. Furthermore, some genera represented in the La Paillade fish fauna presently live exclusively in the Indopacific realm. Their presence strongly supports a broad connection between the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean, and the Paratethys Seas during the Early Miocene (Aquitanian). From a palaeobiogeographical point of view, faunal relationships were found between the La Paillade fish fauna and both the Paratethys fish fauna and the fish fauna from the deposits in the Upper Rhinegraben and the Mayence and Hanau Basins (Germany).



      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 28, Fasc. 1 (1999)

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Neolicaphrium recens Frenguelli,1921,the only surviving proterotheriidae (Litopterna, Mammalia) into the south american Pleistocene.
Mariano Bond, Daniel Perea, Martin Ubilla and Adan Tauber
Keywords: Litopterna; Neolicaphrium recens; Pleistocene; Proterotheriidae; South America
 
  Abstract

    The litoptem Proterotheriidae are extinct endemic South American ungulates frequently used as an example of evolutionary convergence with the horses. They were considered to be exclusively Tertiary representatives with the youngest record being in the late Pliocene, before the appearence of the equids and cervids during the Great American Interchange. Two undoubted Pleistocene records in Argentina and the specimen here described from Uruguay, confirm the persistence of the proterotherids into that period. In the Quaternary, these ungulates are found outside the typical pampean region and probably were confined to a few northern and warmer more forested relictual microhabitats.

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 30, Fasc. 1-2 (2001)

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The Quaternary avifauna of Crete, Greece.
Peter D. Weesie
Keywords: Avifauna; Crete; Quaternary; systematics
 
  Abstract

    Pleistocene bird fossils have been studied from nine localities on Crete. Part of this material was described earlier by the author (Weesie, 1982) and will not be treated here in extenso, the results will be incorporated. More than one third of the over 10,000 fossil bird bones available could be identified ; they were found to represent at least 65 bird species. The following species of the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna are new to the fauna of Crete : Branta ruficollis, Haliaeetus albicilla, Gyps melitensis, Aquila chrysaetos simurgh n. ssp., Ketupa zeylomensis, Aegolius funereus, Dendrocopos leucotos, Zoothera dauma, Turdus iliacus and Pyrrhula pyrrhula. The Pleistocene Cretan avifauna differs less from comparable mainland avifaunas than (fossil) avifaunas from oceanic islands do. Still, the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna has two qualities that are characteristic of island avifaunas : the almost complete absence of a group of birds (the Galliformes) and the presence of two endemic (sub)species : the giant eagle Aquila chrysaetos simurgh n. ssp. and the long-legged owl Athene cretensis (Weesie, 1982). The new subspecies is described in the present study.
    These endemic birds of prey were found in association with their supposedly principal prey species (now extinct as well) : endemic mice for the owl and endemic deer for the eagle. Endemic mammals have been found in association with endemic birds of prey on many islands, not only in the Mediterranean. There is evidence that the size of endemic birds of prey becomes optimally adapted to their feeding on certain endemic mammals, especially rodents. Another characteristic of the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna is the great number of species of birds of prey. This appears to be a common characteristic of fossil avifaunas from caves on Mediterranean islands as well as from caves on the European mainland. However, we think that ecological conditions on Pleistocene Crete (especially the abundant presence of mice) helped to account for the high representation of birds of prey. Furthemore, the fossil avifauna enables us to draw some conclusions about the climate and vegetation on Pleistocene Crete : it is concluded that the climate was cooler than today and that Crete was largely covered with forests. Finally, the reasons for the extinction or disappearance from Crete of some bird species of the Pleistocene Cretan avifauna are discussed. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 18, Fasc. 1 (1988)

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New records of terrestrial Mammals from the upper Eocene Qasr el Sagha Formation, Fayum Depression, Egypt
Patricia A. Holroyd, Elwyn L. Simons, Thomas M. Bown , Paul D. Polly and Mary J. Kraus
Keywords: Egypt; Eocene; Fossil mammals; Qasr el Sagha Formation
 
  Abstract

    New records of terrestrial mammals from the Qasr el Sagha Formation, Fayum Depression, Egypt are reported, and the stratigraphic occurrences of these fossils noted. These include additional specimens of Moeritheríum, Barytherium, and anthracotheres, as well as the oldest record of a hyracoid in the Fayum.These Eocene mammals occur almost exclusively in the alluvial deposits of the Dir Abu Lifa Member of the Qasr el Sagha Formation and show close affinities to the faunas from the lower sequence of the Jebel Qatrani Formation. There is no evidence of a more marked faunal discontinuity between the Qasr el Sagha and Jebel Qatrani Formations than there is across any of the three major breaks in sedimentation that exist within the Jebel Qatrani Formation. The faunal similarities between fossils of the lower sequence of the Jebel Qatrani Formation and of the upper part of the Qasr el Sagha Formation is consistent with recent paleomagnetic dating that suggests that these rocks differ in age by only one to two million years. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Paleobiology of Messel Erinaceomorphs
Gerhard Storch
Keywords: Erinaceomorpha; Germany; Grube Messel; Lipotyphla; Middle Eocene; Paleobiology
 
  Abstract

    Three erinaceomorph species are known from the early Middle Eocene of Grube Messel near Darmstadt, Germany, which are referred to the family Amphilemuridae. Pholidocercus hassiacus, Macrocranion tupaiodon, and Macrocranion tenerum showed extraordinary adaptations to their different life strategies, and several of their specializations are unknown among living insectivores. Pholídocercus was a well-defended robust animal with an opportunistic feeding strategy. Macrocraníon zupaiodon was a slender forest floor-dweller with saltatorial specializations to escape from predators; fishes were the preferred component of its omnivorous diet. Macrocranion tenerum exhibited a combination of both survival strategies, extremely elongated hind limbs for rapid and even ricochetal flight and a spiny exterior as an effective protective device; it was probably specialized for feeding on ants. Thus, closely related, omnivorous-insectivorous forest floor-dwellers could exploit the Messel ecosystem. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 25, Fasc. 2-4 (1996)

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Palaeotis weigelti restudied : a small middle Eocene Ostrich (Aves : Struthioniformes)
Peter Houde and Hartmut Haubold
Keywords: Aves; Central Europe; Middle Eocene; Palaeotis; Struthioniformes
 
  Abstract

    Palaeotis weigelti, from the Middle Eocene of central Europe, is a flightless, paleognathous bird. It appears to be a member of the ostrich lineage on the basis of trivial derived characters. It is a very primitive ratite, however, and does not possess any of the highly specialized cursorial adaptations that characterize the modern steppe -and savanna- dwelling ostriches. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 17, Fasc. 2 (1987)

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First Neogene Otonycteris (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Ukraine: its biostratigraphic and paleogeographic significance.
Valentina V. Rosina
Keywords: bats; East Europe; Gritsev; Late Miocene; Mammalia

doi: 10.18563/pv.39.1.e2
 
  Abstract

    A new species, Otonycteris rummeli nov. sp., is described from the Late Miocene site Gritsev (MN 9) in the Ukraine. Otonycteris rummeli nov. sp. differs from those of most vespertilionids, except recent Otonycteris, Antrozous and Early Miocene Karstala silva, in having a well-developed entocingulid at the foot of the trigonid valley in the lower molars. The morphological resemblance of Otonycteris, Antrozous and Karstala is apparently a case of convergence in the evolution of the Old and New Worlds bat faunas. From at least the Middle Miocene the range of Otonycteris distribution spread to the whole of Central Europe and such a situation continued during the whole Late Miocene. This indicates a more arid climate in Europe during the Upper Miocene compared to the Quaternary. The reduction of the distribution range of Otonycteris and its extinction in most of the territory of Europe could have been caused by the global climatic cooling and increasing glacial cycle amplitude during the onset of the Quaternary. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol.39-1 (2015)

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