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Les traces de pas d'amphibiens, de dinosaures et autres reptiles du Mesozoïque Français : inventaire et interprétations.
Georges Gand, Georges Demathieu and Christian Montenat
Keywords: Footprints; France; Inventory; Mesozoic; palaeontology; palaeovenvironments; Stratigraphy

doi: 10.18563/pv.35.1-4.1-149
 
  Abstract

    Since the 19th century, thousands of footprints were observed in the geological series of the French Mesozoic. All are located in the Triassic and Jurassic. After a promising beginning, in France, it is only a few papers which will be published in the first half 20th century, unlike the USA and of others countries of Western Europe. One ought to wait about 1950 for a revival and now they are nearly 200 papers which were devoted to the ichnofossils. The literature abundance and the renewed interest of the naturalists for the palichnologic studies decided to us to write a synthesis work. This one begins with a stratigraphic inventory in which, localisation, age and paleontological contents of about 180 fossiliferous sites are specified. After having pointed out the followed methods, the footprints paleontological interpretation is then approached in detail and the results obtained are replaced in stratigraphy to deduce the fauna evolution during the Mesozoic. So, it appears that Ichnologic data, more varied and rich in the Triassic and Liassic than those relating to the bones, very rare for the considered periods, are very informative. The middle Triassic (Anisian-Ladinian), thus reveals Cotylosauria, Lepidosauria, Crurotarsi with Rauisuchia, Ornithosuchidae, Crocodylia and Dinosauromorpha more the "Prodinosauria": Dinosamiforme whose skeletons are known in Argentina but only in Ladinian. The rather fast domination of Dinosaurs during Norian is also as well shown. The almost exclusive presence of their footprints, up to fifty cm long, in the Lower Hettangian indicates their supremacy in the environments. Footprints characterise not very deep life places located between inter-supratidal limits and often out of water. Sedimentologic and Palaeontologic studies showed that they were great coastal spaces during Middle Triassic, flood-plain with sebkhas while Upper Triassic, and a large !!coastal marsh!! in Grands-Causses during Liassic in which, mainly, fine stromatolithic layers were deposited. During the same periad, bay beaches spread in Vendée. During the Middle Jurassic, they are also brackish to lacustrine environments and recifallagoons in- the Upper Jurassic. Numerous measurements of the footprints and trackways directions showed that the animaIs moved there in weil defined directions, for long periods. They seem due to the palaeotopography of the life environments relatively stable. Also, the discovery of vegetal radicular networks and small footprints far away from the continental borderlands has suggested that the animals continuously lived in these palaeoenvironnements, belonging to large ecosystems, where the sedimentation rate was weak. This explains that thebadies could not fossilize there but only their footprints through the cyanobacterian action in main cases. From the vertical distribution of different ichnospecies, defined with adapted statistical methods, explained in this work, a palichnostratigraphy was established for the Middle Triassic. Although the footprints are also abundant in Hettango-Sinemurian of "Grands-Causses" and the Vendée, it was not possible, up to now, to establish any zonation in this series; Probably because the palichnofauna is too little diversified there, currently reduced to a majority of Theropods II-IV tridactyl traces.
      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 35, Fasc. 1-4 (2007)

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La palichnofaune de vertébrés tétrapodes du permien supérieur du Bassin de Lodève (Languedoc-France).
Georges Gand, Jacques Garric, Georges Demathieu and Paul Ellenberger
Keywords: Footprints; France; Languedoc; Lodève basin; new ichnotypus; Saxonian; Upper Permian
 
  Abstract

    Near "la Lieude", in the Lodève basin, more than a thousand of footprints are distributed in a twenty of trackways which amounts to 220 m length. They have been found on calcareous siltstone level in the B site named also "Réserve Naturelle Volontaire". This last is located in the Saxonian summit dated Upper Permian. "La Lieude" tracks are described by using statistical methods then they are compared with others from the world Permian. What allows to distinguish 4 following ichnotaxa: Lunaepes ollierorum nov.ichnosp., Merifontichnus thalerius nov. ichnogen. and nov. ichnosp., Planipes brachydactylus nov.ichnosp. and Brontopus circagiganteus nov. ichnosp. All these traces are attributed with possibility or probability to Therapsida or to Therosauria, except Brontopus circagiganteus nov. ichnosp. that could be due to Caseamorpha. All these animals whose sizes have been estimated between l and 5 m lived probably in a playa environment.The biological and sedimentological data from "la Lieude" footprints levels compared with informations provided by the tracks orientations, suggest the following scenario. Animals coming from the North have crossed a sandy channel bank with plants zones by directing to the South for the majority. Maybe, they were going to the lacustrine part of the playa, close to "la Lieude" footprints that they have just trampled on. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 29, Fasc. 1 (2000)

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Sur les empreintes de pas des gros mammifères de l'Eocène supérieur de Garrigues-ste-Eulalie (Gard)
Paul Ellenberger
Keywords: Eocene; Euzet; Footprints; Ichnofauna
 
  Abstract

    Is hereby described an impressive lchnoiauna belonging to the Lower to Middle Ludian of the Gard (S. France). The slab, already cleaned over a length of 18 m, is located near the top of the Potamides aporoschema lacustrine limestone (Lower Ludian, Euzet zone). It is therefore older than the Célas sandstone deposit, and still more than the Melanoides albigensis and M. acutus marly limestone corresponding to the Upper Levels of the Ludian stage. Although biostratigraphically older than the La Débruge and Montmartre zone, the biotope shows already a sampling of very tall Artiodactyles, Perissodactyles and Carnivorous. One of the most « majestic ›› Artiodactyles, Anopolotheriipus lavocati, nov., points out a huge size type. To mention also among the Ichnotypes described, 10, the big Perissodactyle Palaeotheriipus similimedius, nov., and the big Carnivorous Hyaenodontipus praedator, nov. 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 9, Ext (1980)

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Contribution à la classification des Pistes de Vertébrés du Trias : les types du Stormberg d'Afrique du Sud (2 ème Partie: le Stormberg supérieur - 1. Le biome de la zone B/1 ou niveau de Moyeni: ses biocénoses).
Paul Ellenberger
Keywords: biocenosis; Footprints; South Africa; Stormberg; Trias
 
  Abstract

    Les Pistes de Vertébrés du Stormberg Supérieur ("Trias terminal à Rhétien"), ou Quthingien

    Si les zones du Stormberg inférieur se sont révélées contenir de nombreuses traces, surtout dans les faciès dits "Molteno moyen et supérieur", représentant apparemment la base du Keuper, il est frappant de voir pratiquement l'ensemble de cette grosse faune "Molteno" disparaître avec la fin de cette période, que nous avons appelée le "Maphutsengien".

    Dès les premières zones du Stormberg supérieur, que nous nommons le"Quthingien" la zoocénose et la phytocénose, en même temps que les données d'ensemble manifestées par l'environnement, sont modifiées. Nous ne verrons plus guère de dépôts marécageux à flore riche et variée, parfois même luxuriante. Les fougères elles-mêmes ont disparu. Elles sont remplacées par de maigres plantes, aux feuilles très souvent filiformes qui paraissent témoigner d'un climat continental. Le sol est devenu de plus en plus rouge, avec des variations latérales beaucoup plus accusées. Les fleuves amenant des galets des monts du "Grand Sud" ont tari. La faune va en subir les conséquences. Certaines des espèces se révèleront sautillantes ou coureuses, pour un grand nombre plus légères et pour la quasi-totalité d'apparence carnivore ou entomophages, les phytophages devant se contenter d'un régime ingrat,difficile ou à tout le moins irrégulier,les dépôts le montrent.

    C'est dans ces conditions que s'inaugure notre Etage nouveau,quelque peu discordant sur les zones A/5, A/6 ou A/7 du Stormberg inférieur (Maphutsengien). Le Stormberg supérieur (ou Quthingien) commence avec le paléopaysage remarquable dit de Moyeni, que nous allons maintenant étudier, typologiquement, avec ses homologues du même âge. Quelques 38 types d'animaux tous nouveaux vont défiler à nos yeux lors de la zone de base de cet Etage, ou zone B/1.

    L'on nous avait proposé d'intituler ce Ile Tome de la série : "La grande Dalle de Moyeni et ses homologues. Paléo-spectacles, scènes et paysages animaux au Lesotho à l'approche du Trias finissant". Nous avons préféré garder le sous-titre plus haut, peut-être plus prosaïque.

    Un llle Tome est en préparation : "Les développements ultérieurs et terminaux de la faune du Gondwana".

      


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 6, Ext (1974)

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Contribution à la classification des pistes de vertébrés du Trias: Les types du Stormberg d'Afrique du Sud (1).
Paul Ellenberger
Keywords: Footprints; South Africa; Stormberg; Trias
 
  Abstract

    No abstract available 


  Article infos

Published in Vol. 5, Ext (1972)

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